Children of William Lindsey (1760/1770 – 1840) and Rachel Earnest — Elizabeth and Isaac

4. Elizabeth Lindsey Cooper

The 1850 federal census, in which she’s enumerated as a widow in a household headed by her son Zadock in Spartanburg County, places Elizabeth Lindsey’s birth year around 1795.[1] I don’t find Elizabeth on any subsequent census. It appears she died between 1850 and 1860, likely in Spartanburg County. If this is the Elizabeth Cooper who sold 40 acres in Spartanburg County to William A. Cooper of Union County on 11 January 1854, with John and J.W. (Jesse W.) Lindsey, sons of Elizabeth’s brother Isaac, witnessing the land sale, then she was still living at that date.[2]

Here are the records I have for William Lindsey and Rachel Earnest’s daughter Elizabeth:

As we’ve seen previously, Elizabeth Cooper was among the grandchildren of Henry Earnest to whom a share of his estate in Spartanburg County was advanced on 26 February 1840.[3] The document advancing these shares to Henry’s grandchildren identifies Elizabeth as the wife of Ely Cooper, but since Elizabeth signed for her share (by mark), it seems likely her husband Eli/Ely Cooper had died by this date. The husbands of Elizabeth’s married sisters signed for the shares of their wives’ portion of Henry Earnest’s estate.

The deduction that Eli/Ely Cooper had died by 1840 is reinforced by the fact that Elizabeth Cooper is enumerated on the 1840 census in Spartanburg County as head of her household.[4] There can’t be any doubt that this census listing is for Elizabeth Lindsey Cooper, since in both 1840 and 1850, she is listed on the federal census next to her brother Mark Lindsey and on the same page with their brother Henry. The 1840 census shows Elizth Cooper as aged 40-49. In her household are, in addition to Elizabeth herself, 2 males 10-14 and 2 males 15-19, with 1 female 5-9 and 1 female 20-29. 

If the members of Elizabeth’s household in 1840 are all children of Elizabeth Lindsey and Ely Cooper, then it would seem the couple would have married by around 1820, if either of the males aged 15-19 in the household was close to 19 in age. The 1850 federal census shows Elizabeth with only three children in her household, two of whose names are only initials, and whom I have not been able to identify or track with certainty. On this census, in addition to Elizabeth herself, who is aged 55, as noted above, there are a son H. Cooper aged 27, son Zadock (Zadic on this census), aged 25, and a daughter R. Cooper, 17.[5] As this discussion of the 1840 and 1850 federal censuses shows, putting together a picture of the family of Ely and Elizabeth Lindsey Cooper on the basis of the sparse records that appear to be available for this family is a far from simple task. 

According to William Weldon Cooper, whose account of the Cooper family used to be available online at the Family Tree Maker site but is no longer online, Ely Cooper was a son of Jacob Cooper and a brother of John C. Cooper who married Elizabeth Lindsey’s sister Nicy Malinda Lindsey. William W. Cooper’s notes about this family show that Jacob Cooper married 1) Rachel (Stokes?), said to be mother of Ely and John C. Cooper, and 2) Mary Ely. This information is incorrect, however. I have not yet found a record of the name of Jacob’s wife prior to Rachel Lindsey, who was mother of his sons John and Eli/Ely. Jacob did have a first wife Mary Balderston, who died before 27 October 1786, and he then married again to a wife (or wives) who was the mother of most of his children. Following the death of this wife, he remarried between 1820 and 1827-8 to Rachel Lindsey, sister to Elizabeth and Nicy Malinda Lindsey. At the time Jacob died in Spartanburg County around 15 November 1829, his wife was Rachel Cooper, who administered Jacob’s estate and at some point between 4 January and 16 April 1830, Rachel married her second husband William Anson Halbert. A subsequent posting about Rachel Lindsey will document these pieces of information, pointing to Jacob Cooper’s estate file in Spartanburg County, which is a rich source of information about his family (loose-papers estate files, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 580).

As the posting I have just linked in the previous sentence indicates, I think there are a number of indicators that this Cooper family came to South Carolina from Edgecombe County, North Carolina, where an Eley family with roots in southeastern Virginia appears in various records — and I wonder if this Cooper family might connect to that Eley family.

Eli/Ely Cooper was evidently born prior to or by 1800, since he appears in Spartanburg County deed records on 8 June 1818 as witness to the deed of Josiah Woodruff to Susannah Adkinson of land on Jimmie’s Creek/Jamey’s Creek of Tyger River.[6] The 1820 federal census shows Eli heading a household in Spartanburg County, with a male and a female aged 16-26 (placing both of their birthdates between 1794 and 1804) and three females aged under 10.[7] It’s clear from this census entry that this Cooper family was living in the southern part of Spartanburg County in 1820, near the Lindsey family and families connected to it: on the same census page on which the Coopers appear are found William Lindsey Allen, who married Mary (Calvert?), widow of Dennis Lindsey (about 1755 -1795), Josiah, Joseph, Thomas, and Ann Woodruff, Nathaniel Wofford, James and William Hendrix, and Francis Hamby, all from families found frequently in Spartanburg County records of the Lindsey family to which Elizabeth Lindsey Cooper belonged.

I don’t find Eli/Ely Cooper heading a household in Spartanburg County (or Laurens County, for that matter) in 1830. By 1840, we know from the two documents cited above that Eli/Ely Cooper had died. Since the 1850 census shows a female aged 17 in the household of Zadock Cooper, whose mother appears to be Elizabeth Lindsey Cooper, it appears Eli/Ely died between around 1832 and 1840.

A 19 October 1810 deed of Thomas House of Spartanburg County to Eli/Ely Cooper’s father Jacob Cooper confirms that the Cooper family had land in the part of Spartanburg County in which the Lindsey family lived. On that date, Thomas House sold to Jacob Cooper, who was of Laurens County, 130 acres on the north side of the Enoree River out of grants to Thomas Childress and Robert Cooper. The land joined Thomas House’s spring branch.[8] These are the same Thomas House and Thomas Childress of a previously discussed October 1793 deed which shows that Childress was selling House land bordered on the south by the Enoree, on the east by John Hamby, and on the west by “land surveyed in the name of William Lindsey but now calld Spurgeans Land.”[9]

Several Laurens County deeds show Jacob Cooper either living on or owning land adjoining the Enoree on its south side. On 20 March 1809, William Wood and wife Rachel sold Jacob 125 acres on the south side of the Enoree out of grants to Childress and Widowman.[10] And a 10 September 1817 deed of Daniel McKie of Spartanburg County to Charles Cox, evidently of Laurens County, for 150 acres, states that the land was on the south side of the Enoree bordering the river and Jacob Cooper and William Humphries.[11]

Eli/Ely Cooper appears in a bunch of family trees online as Elijah Cooper (see, e.g., here). I have seen absolutely no records giving his name as anything other than Eli or Ely. Since I find both of those spellings in various records, I refer to him as Eli/Ely. It’s not clear to me if he was named for the biblical character Eli or for an Ely/Eley family — but it is clear that he was not named Elijah. Why people want to invent names for folks in their family trees is beyond me to fathom. This creates endless confusion in genealogical research and leads to all sorts of erroneous deductions.

As noted above, putting together a good picture of the family of Eli/Ely Cooper and Elizabeth Lindsey on the basis of the sparse evidence that is available to document their family is quite a challenge. The following is my best stab at the task of compiling a list of the children of Eli/Ely Cooper and Elizabeth Lindsey (all surname Cooper):

1. Henry Cooper was born about 1823 in Spartanburg County, and is listed in the household of Zadock Cooper and Zadock’s mother Elizabeth in Spartanburg County on the 1850 federal census as H. Cooper (see above on this document). We know his name — Henry — from the loose-papers estate file of his uncle Mark Lindsey in Spartanburg County, South Carolina. As we’ll see in a subsequent posting discussing Mark, his estate file (Spartanburg County loose-papers estate files 644) contains a 9 October 1884 legal complaint filed by Mark’s administrator F.M. Trimmier, which names Mark’s heirs, and which states that two of the heirs were Henry Cooper and Rachel Perry, children of Mark’s deceased sister Henry. In a previous version of this posting, I suggested that the son of Elizabeth Lindsey Cooper listed as H. Cooper on the 1850 federal census might be a Berry Cooper who was a buyer at the estate sale of Zadock Cooper in Laurens County on 10 June 1858.[12] The list of heirs in Mark Lindsey’s estate file proves me wrong about that deduction.

A number of published and online sources identify Eli/Ely and Elizabeth Lindsey Cooper’s son Henry Cooper as a William Berry Cooper who married Louisa Mosely in Cherokee County, Georgia, on 26 October 1849.[13] This man may be a William B. Cooper who is enumerated with his family on the 1860 federal census at Trenton post office in Phillips County, Arkansas.[14] This census listing shows Wm. B. Cooper as 36, born in South Carolina, with wife Luseria (?), 27, born in Tennessee, and children Elizabeth, 5, Sallie, 3, William, 1, and Henry, 1. Elizabeth was born in Mississippi and the other children in Arkansas. 

This is apparently the Sergeant W.B. Cooper whose name is listed on a Confederate monument in Enterprise cemeteryat Enterprise in Clarke County, Mississippi, with a notation that he was a Confederate soldier in Company D, Arkansas 13th Infantry. The Confederate service packet of W.B. Cooper for this CSA unit does show that he was a sergeant in company D, and that he died at some point after 12 June 1862 in the hospital at Enterprise, Mississippi, after having been sent there due to sickness.[15] W.B. Cooper enlisted in Company D of Arkansas 13th Infantry on 1 August 1861 at Madison in St. Francis County, Arkansas. At one point, the CSA service papers give his name as William Berry Cooper.

Once again: the 9 October 1884 legal complaint filed by F.M. Trimmier, adminstrator of the estate of Mark Lindsey, which is found in Mark’s loose-papers estate file, and which lists Mark’s heirs, clearly states that his deceased Elizabeth had children Henry and Rachel (who was married and had the name Perry in 1884), both living in October 1884. I have been unable to find any information about Henry Cooper other than his listing in his mother’s household on the 1850 federal census and his listing as the son of Elizabeth Lindsey Cooper in Mark Lindsey’s estate records.

2. Zadock William Cooper was born about 1825 in Spartanburg County, South Carolina, and died before 30 April 1858 in Laurens County, South Carolina. On 26 June 1851 in Spartanburg County, he married Elizabeth Edwards, daughter of Thomas Edwards.[16] As has been noted, he heads a household in Laurens County on the 1850 federal census in which his widowed mother Elizabeth and siblings B. and R. Cooper are enumerated.[17] This document states that he was 25 years of age, born in South Carolina.

Zadock W. Cooper estate, appeal of Manning Edwards for administration, 20 April 1858, Laurens County, South Carolina, loose-papers estate files, box 130, #22

We can determine that Zadock died sometime before 20 April 1858 in Laurens County, because his brother-in-law Manning Edwards petitioned on that date in Laurens County to administer Zadock’s estate, stating that “Zaddock Cooper Late of Said District recently departed this life.”

Zadock W. Cooper estate, sale account, 10 June 1858, Laurens County, South Carolina, loose-papers estate files, box 130, #22

A 26 April 1859 return of the estate of Zadock filed in his loose-papers estate file gives his name as Z.W. Cooper, as does the settlement of the estate filed the same day. The tombstone of Zadock’s widow Elizabeth Edwards Cooper in Bethany Baptist cemetery at Fountain Inn in Laurens County also states that she was the widow of Z.W. Cooper, giving her birth and death dates as 26 June 1831 and 26 March 1911.

Zadock William Cooper and Elizabeth Edwards had the following children: Pierce Butler Cooper (1852-1928, married Buena Vista Jones, daughter of Richard Abner Jones and Nancy Lenora Westmoreland); Eli Lacey Cooper (1856-1920, married Frances M. Wade); Martha Jane Cooper (1853-1904, married Sanford Sparrow Reynolds; and William Brooks Cooper (1857-1934, married Ella A. Curry).[18]

Apparently because the 1850 federal census listing for Zadock has been transcribed as Zadie — but the original reads Zadic — numerous family trees online have chosen to name him Zadock Zadie Cooper. I’ve seen no documents anywhere calling him Zadie. Once again: it creates endless confusion and leads to many erroneous deductions when folks choose to misname people in their family trees in this way.

3. Rachel Cooper was born about 1833 ? — see comments below on discrepancies in her age as it is given on various federal censuses) in Spartanburg or Laurens County, South Carolina. I have not found a Rachel on the 1860 federal census in either Laurens or Spartanburg Counties, South Carolina, who might have been a daughter of Eli/Ely and Elizabeth.

The 1870 federal census does show a Racheal Cooper, aged 25, living in the household of Mark (Marcus in this census listing) Lindsey, brother of Elizabeth Lindsey Cooper, at Reidville, Glenn Springs post office, in Spartanburg County.[19] The census listing actually shows Racheal as head of the household and lists her as a farmer, as it does Marcus Lindsey. Also in the household is Landrum Bragg, aged 19. I think it’s likely that this Rachel Cooper, who was paid by Mark’s estate file for providing care for him at the end of his life, a point I’ll discuss in a later posting about Mark) is the daughter of his sister Elizabeth. But, if so, note that R. Cooper was aged 17 in 1850 and this Racheal Cooper is 25 in 1870. The 1880 federal census (see below) will suggest a birth year of 1830 for her.

Landrum Bragg was the son of Chaney and Mary Bragg of Laurens County, per the 1850 census, which shows Mary as born around 1824.[20] Landrum Bragg’s death certificate shows him dying in Woodruff, Spartanburg County, on 11 November 1926, son of Chaney Bragg and Polly Cooper.[21]  

Elizabeth Lindsey Cooper’s daughter Rachel is apparently a Rachel Cooper, aged 50, found living at Reidville, Spartanburg County, on the 1880 federal census (p. 308A, ED 146, dwelling/family 307). This census listing states that she was a farmer, aged 50. We can deduce that this is Eli/Ely Cooper and Elizabeth Lindsey’s daughter Rachel since the census shows in her household a Mary Gwyn, 40, listed as her cousin — and Mark Lindsey’s estate file states that his heirs included a Mary “Glynn,” daughter of his brother Henry Lindsey. Mary Gwin is in her mother Susannah’s household at Reidville on the 1870 federal census.

The other members of Rachel’s household in 1880 are a bit more difficult to decipher. The census taker appears to give their surname as Koker, though the name is crossed out. These houshold members include a James, 30, who appears to be Rachel’s son, his wife Amanda, 27, and their children Neosine (?), 11, female, Thomas, 8, and Walter, 3. There is also a Mary, 60, listed as “mother,” who would have to have been Amanda’s mother, I think. Had Rachel married a Koker by around 1850? If so, why is her surname Cooper in 1880? And why is she named as Rachel Perry in the 1884 legal document in her uncle Mark Lindsey’s estate file? There seem to be some mysteries here.

5. Isaac Lindsey

William and Rachel Earnest Lindsey’s son Isaac was born in 1798, according to his tombstone (see the head of this posting) in Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery at Fountain Inn in Laurens County, South Carolina.[22] The 1870 federal census corroborates this birthdate,[23] while the 1850 federal census gives his age as 50, placing his birth in 1800,[24] and the 1860 federal census suggests he was born in 1796.[25]

Isaac Lindsey had apparently married by 1820, since, as a previous posting has noted, he appears on the federal census in Spartanburg County as head of a household on the census page preceding the page on which his father William is enumerated.[26] His household contains a male aged 16-25 and two males under ten years, as well as two females aged 16-25 and a female under ten years, along with one enslaved person. Listed on the same census page is Dennis Lindsey (1793 – 1850/1860), son of the Dennis Lindsey (about 1755 – 1795), who was, I think, Isaac’s uncle.

It’s possible that Isaac’s wife at the time the 1820 census was taken was a wife prior to Mary Pickrell, daughter of William Pickrell and Milana Owens, whom he seems to have married around 1827-1828, judging from the birthdates of his children by Mary. If Isaac did have a wife prior to Mary, however, I have no information about her.

As a previous posting states, on 26 March 1821 in Spartanburg County, Isaac bought from his father William Lindsey 57 acres from a grant to John Tate.[27] Albert B. Pruitt’s abstract of this deed says that it states that the land was on branches of the Enoree on its south side.[28] If that’s correct, then it would seem this land was in Laurens County. The deed states that the tract bordered John Childress and Samuel Jones. Witnesses were a Chaney Lindsey I have not been able to place, and John Pearson. As I suggested in the previous posting I linked at the start of this paragraph, if Isaac had a wife prior to Mary Pickrell, perhaps Chaney (a nickname for Christianna, when used as a female name) was Isaac’s wife.

About 23 March 1827 (the day and month are blank in the deed, but can be estimated by other nearby deeds), John Pearson sold to Thomas Pearson, both of Spartanburg County, 115 acres on the waters of the Enoree bordering John Pearson, Isaac Lindsey, and Moses and John Fowler.[29] William Lindsey Allen and William Jones witnessed this deed. William Lindsey Allen married Mary, the widow of Dennis Lindsey (about 1755 – 1795). The John Pearson selling this piece of land and living beside Isaac is very likely the John Pearson who witnessed the sale of land by Isaac’s father William to him in March 1821.

Isaac Lindsey’s signature is found on a number of documents in the loose-papers estate file of Henry Earnest, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, loose-papers estate files, Henry Earnest estate, file 840.

On 5 May 1834, Isaac appealed for the administration of the estate of his grandfather Henry Earnest in Spartanburg County, giving bond in the amount of $10,000 with his brother Dennis Lindsey and brother-in-law William C. Johnson on 2 June.[30] The same day (2 June), the court directed that Isaac and Dennis have the estate appraised, after citation had been granted on 1 June at Cedar Grove Baptist church. As we’ve seen previously, the following year Isaac’s mother Rachel filed suit, alleging that Isaac and his bondsmen had not protected her share of her father’s estate.[31]

As a previous posting also notes, on 5 October 1835, Isaac’s grandmother Margaret Earnest, along with son-in-law William Lindsey and wife Rachel, deeded land from Henry Earnest’s estate for love and affection to grandsons Isaac, Mark, Dennis, and Henry. Isaac received 130 acres on which he was then living on the Enoree, bordered by a spring, Snorley Creek, and a spring branch.[32]

A month later, on 5 November, when Henry Earnest’s personal estate was sold, Isaac purchased an enslaved woman Abbey from the estate.[33] On 23 December, Isaac returned the sale account to Spartanburg County court.[34]

As a previous posting notes in detail, the equity court case file for the lawsuit that Isaac’s mother Rachel filed in Spartanburg County in 1835 against her mother Margaret has undated copies of Rachel’s complaints and of responses to the complaints by Rachel’s husband William and sons Isaac and Dennis.[35] Rachel states that she had asked for her sons to account for their use of their grandfather’s estate and they had not done so. Isaac and Mark responded to their mother’s complaint by stating that her allegations about their father (that he was intemperate, unkind to her, and insolvent) were baseless, and that instead of wasting their mother’s inheritance, they had improved the property on which she, her husband William, and mother Peggy were living. 

They also stated that their brother-in-law William Anson Halbert, husband of their sister Rachel, had put their mother up to filing suit in an attempt to gain control of her property. In June 1837, Spartanburg County equity court placed Rachel Earnest Lindsey’s inheritance from her father Henry in trust, appointing Isaac and his brother-in-law William A. Halbert as trustees of William and Rachel Earnest Lindsey and their inheritance from Henry Earnest.

On 22 September 1837 (this was discussed previously), Isaac’s brothers Mark and Dennis sold him the 500 acres deeded to them for love and affection by their grandmother Margaret Earnest and their parents in October 1835, at the same time that Isaac had also received land from his grandfather’s estate.[36] Mark and Dennis’s deed states that 300 of the 500 acres had been granted to William Lindsey on 7 March 1769 on the north side of the Enoree River. William Lindsey then sold that tract of land, and it passed through several hands (this is discussed in detail in the posting I’ve just linked) before Henry Earnest acquired it — and in this way the original land patent of William Lindsey Sr. in Spartanburg County then ended up in the possession of Isaac Lindsey.

On 17 November 1837, Isaac Lindsey deeded to James McLain, both Spartanburg County, 180½ acres on which he had lately been living, bordering a spring, Henry Lindsey, Calton, a branch of the river, and Snorley Creek.[37] This deed was witnessed by Thomas P. Brockman and Henry M. Smith. Isaac signed, and Brockman proved the deed on 23 June 1838, with Isaac’s wife Mary relinquishing dower on 16 June and signing by mark.

Isaac is enumerated on the 1840 federal census in Spartanburg County with a household containing 2 males 5-10, 1 male 10-15, 1 male 40-50, 2 females under 5, 1 female 5-10, and 1 female 30-40. The household also has 7 enslaved persons.[38] The two males aged 5-10 were sons Jesse W. and John N., and the male aged 10-15 was son William R. The females under 5 were daughters Amelia S. and Emma Caroline, and the female aged 5-10 was daughter Jane M. The older male and female are, of course, Isaac and wife Mary.

In 1840 — I seem not to have a more specific date for this instrument — Isaac mortgaged 527 acres on which he was then living in Spartanburg County bordering on the Enoree, along with enslaved persons Jack, Joe, Aaron, Peter, Abbey, and Eliza, and all his plantation tools and household goods and crops, as security for his brother Henry’s continuation of the administration of the estate of their grandfather Henry Earnest.[39]

The case file of Rachel Lindsey’s equity court suit against her mother Peggy Earnest and others contains a document showing that on 26 February 1840, Isaac received 130 acres from Henry Earnest’s estate.[40] Isaac signed the document acknowledging that he had received his share. This is evidently an acknowledgment of the land deeded to him on 3 October 1835, noted above.

By June 1845, Isaac had been declared non compos mentis by Spartanburg court, with his brother Henry being appointed his guardian. His mother Rachel mentions this in the lawsuit she filed on 1 August 1846 against her son-in-law William Halbert.[41] More information about this matter is found in another Spartanburg County equity court case that Sterling P. Lanford filed on 18 September 1869 as administrator of Isaac’s deceased son William R. Lindsey.[42]

Lanford was filing suit against Isaac’s son John N. Lindsey on behalf of William R. Lindsey’s estate. His petition states that Isaac was a “lunatic” who had been kept under confinement by his brother Henry, who built a house on his property in which to keep his brother confined. Isaac’s brother Henry had assumed responsibility for his brother after Isaac’s son William had initially provided care for his father. When Henry died on 31 December 1862, Isaac’s son John then assumed responsibility for Isaac.

An answer to Lanford’s complaint by Henry’s widow Susan found in this case file affirms this information, stating that Henry had assumed the care of his brother Isaac in 1845. The date of death I’ve just cited for Henry is given by his widow Susan in this legal document. In the loose-papers estate file of Isaac (cited below), there is an account compiled by Henry showing him paying the state asylum in 1847 for care for Isaac; this account is dated 28 February 1848.

As a previous posting notes, in 1850, Isaac is enumerated on the federal census on 22 October as a patient in the South Carolina mental hospital in Columbia.[43] The census entry states that Isaac was a planter, aged 50, who had been committed in 1846.

On the same 1850 census (again, see the posting I have just linked), Isaac’s wife Mary and their children are enumerated in Spartanburg County on 27 August in a household headed by Mary, and then again on 17 December in the household of Isaac’s brother Mark, with a Richard Lindsey, 75in that household who is, I’m confident, Mark’s mother Rachel, also listed as insane.[44]

The first of these two entries (27 August) shows Isaac’s wife Polly Lindsey as head of the household, aged 45, with children William, 21, John, 18, Jessa, 16 (male), Jane, 15, Emily, 13, Milla, 10, Jasper, 9, Mila, 3 (male), and John, 1. The 17 December shows Mary Lindsey as 41 and has the same list of listing has roughly the same list of children with roughly the same ages, except that daughter Jane is enumerated as James, a male, in this listing, and Amelia, who is Milla in the other listing, is now Nelly, Jasper has become Joseph, and the two youngest children of the other household, males named Mila and a younger John, are now listed as Enoch (?) and Martin, with ages different from those of Mila and the younger John.

The 1850 federal slave schedule for Spartanburg County shows Isaac Lindsey enumerated next to his mother Rachel. Isaac is holding nine enslaved people and Rachel one.[45] James McLain, to whom Isaac had previously sold land, is listed following Isaac, holding six enslaved people.

A 22 November 1853 deed of Ralph S. Wright and Frances Elvira Wright of Spartanburg County to Thomas P. Brockman of Greenville County for land formerly belonging to Jesse Wofford notes that the land adjoined that of Isaac Lindsey, James P. Wofford, and others.[46] Note that Thomas P. Brockman witnessed Isaac Lindsey’s November 1837 deed to James McLain discussed above. In the case file for Rachel Earnest Lindsey’s lawsuit against her son-in-law William Anson Halbert, there’s a June 1854 equity court decree removing William Halbert and Isaac Lindsey as administrators of Henry Earnest’s estate and placing Colonel Thomas P. Brockman in their position. Brockman refused this charge and the court then instructed Henry Lindsey to undertake it. He also refused.

The 1860 federal census shows the family of Isaac Lindsey at Enoree post office in Spartanburg County’s southern division.[47] Isaac is listed as 64, a farmer with $3,200 real worth and $1,125 personal worth. Wife Polly is 60. In the household are children William, 30, Jasper, 18, Emily, 21, Milly, 19, and Bails (the name seems to be spelled as Bala), 13, who is listed as an “idiot.” Listed five households prior to Isaac’s family is the family of Nicholas Van Patten, who was previously discussed, and for whom Van Patton Shoals on the Enoree are named.

The last federal census on which Isaac Lindsey is enumerated, the 1870 census, shows his family living in Spartanburg County at Reidville, Glenn Springs post office.[48] Isaac is listed as a farmer, aged 72, with $1,600 real worth and $750 personal worth. Isaac’s wife Mary had died in 1864 and is not found on this census. Listed in Isaac’s household are his children John, 36, Emily, 28, Amelia, 26, and Bailus, 23. John is listed as a physician, and Emily is keeping house for the family. Bailus is again listed as an “idiot.” The 1870 census shows Isaac’s brother Mark also living at Reidville, Glenn Springs post office.

As an aside, it’s worth noting that a daughter of Isaac Lindsey’s sister Cassandra and husband William C. Johnson — their daughter Elvira — is enumerated on the 1850 federal census in Cass County, Georgia, with the annotation “idiot.” I discussed this family in a previous posting. Terms like “idiot” and “lunatic” were, one suspects, fairly elastic terms at this period, and might cover any number of mental imbalances or deficiencies. One does have to wonder what was going on in a family in which the mother (Rachel Earnest Lindsey) appears (as I have concluded) on the 1850 federal census with the notation “insane,” in which her son Isaac was declared non compos mentis and placed in the state mental institution and under the guardianship of his son and then his brother, in which Isaac’s brother Mark appears on the 1860 census as insane and is labeled a “lunatic” in his estate papers, as we’ll see in a subsequent posting, and in which Isaac and his sister Cassandra both had a child listed on the federal census as “idiot.” It seems to me a good possibility that some congenital problem was being passed down in this family, which might have been labeled as mental illness or deficiency.

Tombstone of Mary Pickrell Lindsey, Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery, Fountain Inn, Laurens County, South Carolina, photo uploaded by gerald to Mary’s Find a Grave memorial page created by Robin Farley Dixson Coon

As noted previously, Isaac Lindsey died 30 March 1873, probably in Spartanburg County, and is buried in Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery at Fountain Inn in Laurens County along with his wife Mary, with a tombstone giving his date of death (see the head of the posting).[49] Mary’s tombstone states that she died 3 September 1864, aged 66. As a previous posting notes, Nicholas Van Patten deeded the land for the Cedar Grove church in 1823, having purchased it from Isaac’s brother-in-law William Anson Halbert.

Petition of Jesse Pickrell to administer estate of Isaac Lindsey, 12 April 1873, in loose-papers estate file of Isaac Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 1011

Isaac’s loose-papers estate file in Spartanburg County has a petition filed 12 April 1873 by Jesse Pickrell of Greenville County, naming himself as the maternal uncle of Isaac’s children, and appealing for administration. This gives Isaac’s heirs as Dr. John N. Lindsey, Emily C. Lindsey, Amelia S. Lindsey, Bayless P. Lindsey, and the children of Jane M. Cole, deceased, residing in the state of Mississippi.

The Carolina Spartan newspaper for 7 August 1873 has a notice that the estate of Isaac Lindsey was in probate, and that Emma C. and Amelia S. Lindsey had sued John N. Lindsey, Baylis P. Lindsey, et. al. A petition to sell the land had been filed on 7 August. The children of Jane Cole were residing outside the state. On 16 October, Carolina Spartan stated that a sheriff’s sale had been held for 300 acres belonging to Isaac Lindsey. This land sale may not have included all of Isaac’s landholdings, since his estate file includes a 2 April 1875 notice of an impending sale of his land, with notice given to Emily Lindsey, Milly Lindsey, Baylis Lindsey, and John N. Lindsey.

Isaac Lindsey estate, bond of George E. DeBard for administration, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Administration and Bond Bk. B, p. 492.

On 1 October 1873, George E. DeBard petitioned in Spartanburg County to administer Isaac Lindsey’s estate, with Thomas Arnold and W.T. Westmoreland giving bond with him.[50] I’m not sure why the petition for administration would postdate the petition to sell Isaac’s land — perhaps because it seems there was litigation between Isaac’s heirs and someone outside the family, that is, someone other than their uncle Jesse Pickrell, needed to administer the estate after that litigation began? The estate file shows Isaac’s estate Isaac estate being appraised on 17 Nov 1873 by A.Q. Greene, Seaborn Roberts, and M.T. Westmoreland, with the estate sale held on the 19th.

Here’s what I know of the children of Isaac Lindsey and wife Mary Pickrell:

Tombstone of William Riley and Isaac Jasper Lindsey, Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery, Fountain Inn, Laurens County, South Carolina, photo uploaded by gerald to William’s Find a Grave memorial page created by Robin Farley Dixson Coon
5 January 1860 promissory note of William Riley Lindsey to Hunter & Westmoreland, in loose-papers estate file of William Riley Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 2739

1. William Riley Lindsey was born about 1829 in Spartanburg County, and died on 26 September 1862 of wounds he received in the battle of Antietam at Sharpsburg in Washington County, Maryland. William was a private in Company K of the 3rd regiment of the South Carolina infantry, CSA. His CSA service papers state that he died at the farm of Elias Groves, evidently near Sharpsburg. A monument to him and his brother Isaac in Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery, Fountain Inn, Laurens County, where their parents are buried, gives his age as 30 at the time of his death and states that he died of wounds at the battle of Sharpsburg. This would place his birth around 1832, but as noted above, he is in his parents’ household on the 1850 federal census, aged 21. It appears William did not marry.

Final settlement, estate of William Riley Lindsey, loose-papers estate file of William Riley Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 2739

William R. Lindsey’s estate file shows Sterling P. Lanford giving bond on 7 November 1867 for the administration of the estate, with bondsmen John N. Lindsey and T.S. Wright (loose-papers estate file of William Riley Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 2739). The estate file has an appraisal account whose date I cannot read — and the account itself is illegible, too — because the copy is too dark in the digital copies of Spartanburg County estate files. The appraisal account and sale account were filed 3 February 1868, with the filing showing that the sale was held on 1 Jaunary, with William’s brother John N. Lindsey as principal buyer. The estate file also has a bond of William’s brother John N. Lindsey and C.P. Woodruff for administration of the estate at an unspecified date in 1875 — evidently after William’s father Isaac died and William’s portion of Isaac’s inheritance needed to be distributed to Isaac’s other heirs. The estate file shows William’s heirs being given their distributive shares of his estate on 15 June 1875, named as John N. Lindsey, Emily C. Lindsey, Milly Lindsey, Baylis Lindsey, and the heirs of Jane Cole, deceased.

Receipt of John N. Lindsey, 15 June 1875, for share of estate of William Riley Lindsey, in loose-papers estate file of William Riley Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 2739
Testimony of Dr. John N. Lindsey, 1870, U.S. Congress, First Session Forty-Second Congress, Congressional Globe, part 2, p. 293, online at website of Digital Library of University of North Texas

2. John N. Lindsey was born about 1833 in Spartanburg County. As noted previously, he’s in the household of both his mother and his uncle Mark on the 1850 federal census, and in 1870, is living with his widowed father and is listed as a physician. Labor contracts issued by the Freedmen’s Bureau of Spartanburg County show John N. Lindsey contracting on 3 April 1866 for the labor of a number of people who had been freed (see Spartanburg District, South Carolina Freedmen’s Bureau Labor Contracts, Series I, A-Z, Dec. 1865 – June 1866, NARA M1910; online at website of International African American Museum’s Center for Family History). In 1870, when a Congressional committee was investigating Ku Klux Klan intimidation of newly freed African Americans in the county who were seeking to vote, Dr. John N. Lindsey gave testimony stating that he was 40 years old, a farmer living in Cashville district of Spartanburg County where he was clerk. He himself had voted Democratic in the 1868 election, but had seen Republican voters intimidated and attempts made to terrorize and disenfranchise them — and he protested those activities and regarded them as wrong (see U.S. Congress, First Session Forty-Second Congress, Congressional Globe, part 2, p. 293, online at website of Digital Library of University of North Texas).

By 1880, John was living with the family of Nathan W. Gregory in Moons township in Newberry County, where the federal census lists him as a physician aged 49, who was widowed (1880 federal census, Newberry County, South Carolina, p. 165B, dwelling/family 130).

It’s possible that John married an Emma M. sometime after 1870, since the Newberry Herald for 26 July 1876 (p. 2, col. 8) shows him applying on 22 July for administration of the estate of Emma M. Lindsey of Newberry, deceased, and the same newspaper shows him on 22 November announcing a sale on 6 December of the personal property of Emma M. Lindsey deceased (p. 2, col. 5). Prior to this, Newberry Herald shows him advertising on 17 September 1873 (p. 2, col. 6) the sale of 935 acres, a cotton plantation on the Greenville and Columbia Road near Saluda Old Town, where the advertisement says John was living. This land evidently belonged to Emma, since an ad in the same paper on 15 November 1876 (p. 2, col. 7) says that John was renting 617 of the 935 acres, and that they were from a plantation belonging to Emma M. Lindsey, deceased. John was still living on 18 May 1881, when the Newberry Herald in an article entitled “Saluda Old Town Dots” stated that Dr. J.N. Lindsay, “a celebrated scientist,” had analyzed the waters of the Mineral Spring in the town and found them to contain wonderful properties.

Tombstone of Jesse W. Lindsey, Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery, Fountain Inn, Laurens County, South Carolina, photo uploaded by gerald to Jesse’s Find a Grave memorial page created by Robin Farley Dixson Coon

3. Jesse W. Lindsey was born about 1834 in Spartanburg County, and died 3 October 1854. Jesse is buried at Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery at Fountain Inn in Laurens County with a marker stating that he died 3 October 1854, aged 22.

Letter of Melinda Elvira Cole Casey in loose-papers estate file of William Riley Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 2739

4. Jane M. Lindsey was born about 1835 in Spartanburg County. Jane had died prior to 7 August 1873 when the previously cited notice in the Carolina Spartan newspaper of the probate of her father’s estate states that her children were residing out of state. The loose-papers estate file of her brother William Riley Lindsey (Spartanburg County loose-papers estate files 2739) states that the children of his deceased sister Jane Cole were residing in the state of Mississippi. The file contains a valuable document that allows us to put together a picture of Jane M. Lindsey’s family: this is a 29 March 1881 letter written by William’s niece M.E. Cole of Itawamba County, Mississippi, asking that her inheritance from William’s estate please be sent to her by mail, and stating that she was 21 years old and had recently married J.F. Casey.

Pull that thread, and the pieces fall into place: M.E. Cole is Melinda Elvira Cole, who married John Franklin Casey on 2 November 1879 in Itawamba County, Mississippi. They went from Mississippi to Lubbock, Texas, and are buried in the city cemetery there. Melinda was born 27 March 1860 in Choctaw County, Mississippi, and died 24 April 1934 at Lubbock, Texas.

In 1870, Melinda and her sister Marietta are living in the household of their aunt Melissa Cole and husband Simeon Bolivar Roberts at Fulton in Itawamba County, Mississippi, obviously orphaned (p. 389B, dwelling/household 289). In 1860, their parents John B. Cole and Jane Lindsey Cole are found in Choctaw County, Mississippi, with Melinda and Marietta (listed as Mary E.) in their household (p. 395, dwelling 1468, family 1414)— so John and Jane died between 1860 and 1870. The surname is spelled Coal on this census; it gives John’s age as 28 and Jane’s as 26. I find John on the 1850 census in Spartanburg County, South Carolina, aged 18, in the household of his parents John H. and Melinda Cooper Cole (p. 98A, dwelling/family 156).

Marietta Cole was born 2 January 1858 in Choctaw County, Mississippi, and died 28 December 1895 in Itawamba County, Mississippi. On 25 November 1880 in Itawamba County, she married Francis Marion Wood. The couple are buried in Fairview Baptist cemetery at Fairview in Itawabma County. John B. Cole and Jane M. Lindsey also had a daughter Lura enumerated in their household in 1860. She was born about 1856 and does not appear on the 1870 census, so it seems she died between 1860 and 1870.

Family trees all over the place and the Find a Grave site have Melinda and Marietta attached to the wrong parents, to John B. Cole’s brother Jesse Seaborn Cole and wife Martha Adkinson Cole

Because the 1850 federal census gives Jane M. Lindsey’s name as James when she’s enumerated in the household of her uncle Mark, many family trees for the family of Isaac Lindsey and Mary Pickrell erroneously turn Jane into James — but as the notice of the probate of her father’s estate in Carolina Spartan on 7 August 1873 makes clear, she was a daughter of Isaac and Mary and not a son. The couple had no son named James.

Tombstone of Emma Caroline Lindsey, Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery, Fountain Inn, Laurens County, South Carolina, photo uploaded by gerald to Emma’s Find a Grave memorial page created by Robin Farley Dixson Coon
Receipt of Emily Carolina Lindsey, 2 September 1875, for share of estate of William Riley Lindsey, in loose-papers estate file of William Riley Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 2739

5. Emlly Caroline Lindsey was born about 1835 in Spartanburg County, and died 5 June 1897. Her tombstone in Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery, Fountain Inn, Laurens County, gives her date of death, and perhaps states her age at time of death, but I cannot make out the inscription in the photo of the stone found at the Find a Grave page I have just linked.

Tombstone of Amelia S. Lindsey, Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery, Fountain Inn, Laurens County, South Carolina, photo uploaded by gerald to Amelia’s Find A Grave memorial page created by Robin Farley Dixson Coon
Receipt of Amelia S. Lindsey, 28 July 1875, for share of estate of William Riley Lindsey, in loose-papers estate file of William Riley Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 2739

6. Amelia S. Lindsey was born in June 1839 in Spartanburg County, and died 14 August 1915, aged 76. Her tombstone in Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery, Fountain Inn, Laurens County, gives here date of death, stating that she was 76 when she died. 

Receipt of William Riley Lindsey to Isaac Jasper Lindsey, in loose-papers estate file of William Riley Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 2739
Receipt to Nathaniel Hamby for coffin, 19 August 1861, loose-papers estate file of William Riley Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 2739

7. Isaac Jasper Lindsey was born in 1844 in Spartanburg County, and died 21 July 1861 in the battle of Manassas. He was in Company E, Holcombe Legion’s, of the South Carolina Infantry, CSA, under Captains W.P. Roebuck and Andrew Barry Woodruff. His tombstone in Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery, Fountain Inn, Laurens County, shared with brother William, states that he was killed in the battle of Manassas, aged 18. (A photo of the tombstone is above.) The loose-papers estate file of Isaac’s brother William Riley Lindsey in Spartanburg County has a receipt dated 19 August 1861, to Nathaniel Hamby for making a coffin. I think this was likely a coffin made for the funeral of Isaac when his body was returned from Virginia to his family in South Carolina.

Tombstone of Balis P. Lindsey, Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery, Fountain Inn, Laurens County, South Carolina, photo uploaded by gerald to Bailis’s Find A Grave memorial page created by Robin Farley Dixson Coon

8. Balis P. Lindsey was born in 1850 in Spartanburg County, and died 15 June 1878. His tombstone in Cedar Grove Baptist cemetery, Fountain Inn, Laurens County, gives his date of death, noting he was aged 28 when he died. 

One of two loose-papers estate files for Balus Lindsey in Spartanburg County classifies him as an “idiot pauper” who held an interest in the estate of his brother William R. Lindsey (loose-papers estate file of Balus P. Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 740). On 6 May 1876, commissioners C.P. Woodruff and S.P. Lanford petitioned for the administrators of William’s estate to pay into the hands of the county commissioners funds for Balus’s upkeep, and the court ordered on 15 June for this to be done.

A separate loose-papers estate file shows Balus’s sister Amelia petitioning on 28 July 1881 for William H. Hughes to be made administratof of Balus’s estate. On 22 August, the petition was granted and Hughes was appointed made administrator (loose-papers estate file of Balus P. Lindsey, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 3394).

On the basis of the 1850 federal census listing above, showing Isaac Lindsey’s wife Mary and their children living with Isaac’s brother Mark, many family trees have added and Enoch to this family, and have tagged Balis P. Lindsey as Martin Balis P. Lindsey. I have seen no documents showing Balis’s name as anything other than Balis, Balis P., or Bayless/Bayliss Lindsey, and do not think there was a son Martin in Isaac and Mary’s family. I’m also dubious about the Enoch of that single census listing. 


[1] 1850 federal census, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, p. 305 (dwelling and family 3152; 17 December).

[2] Spartanburg County Deed Bk. DD, pp. 78-9.

[3] Spartanburg County, South Carolina, loose-papers estate files, Henry Earnest estate, #840.

[4] 1840 federal census, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, p. 124.

[5] See supra, n. 1.

[6] Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Deed Bk. Q, pp. 225-6.

[7] 1820 federal census, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, p. 127.

[8] Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Deed Bk. M, pp. 415-6. 

[9] Ibid., Deed Bk. D, pp. 157-8. John House of Pendleton District sold Jacob Cooper of Laurens District another 100 acres on the Enoree in Spartanburg County on 6 April 1812: ibid., Deed Bk. N, pp. 204-5. On 3 November, Jacob Cooper sold this 100-acre tract to a John Cooper who is likely his son John C. Cooper, who married Nicy Malinda Lindsey. William Fowler and Henry Earnest witnessed this deed (ibid., Deed Bk. N, pp. 232-3). On 26 October 1824, Jacob Cooper, again identified as of Laurens District, bought from John Cantrill of Spartanburg County 500 acres in Spartanburg County on which Cantrill was living, bordering John Westmoreland, Earnest, and William Childress: ibid., Deed Bk. T, pp. 35-6.

[10] Laurens County, South Carolina, Deed Bk. J, p. 89.

[11] Ibid., Deed Bk. K, p. 236.

[12] The original copy of the sale account is in Laurens County, South Carolina, loose-papers estate files, box 130, #22, estate of Zadock W. Cooper.

[13] Cherokee County, Georgia, Marriage Bk. 1849-1855, p. 137.

[14] 1860 federal census, Phillips County, Arkansas, Trenton post office, p. 284 (dwelling 62, family 57; 5 June).

[15] NARA, Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Arkansas, M317, RG 109, digital copy online at Fold3 site.

[16] “Marriage Records, 1851-1853,” South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research 9,1 (1891) — see Paul R. Sarrett, Jr., “Statewide: Marriage Records,” online at USGenweb Archives for South Carolina. The loose-papers estate file of Thomas Edwards in Laurens County, box 141, #3 (1862) shows Elizabeth being paid a share of Thomas Edwards’ estate as one of his heirs.

[17] See supra, n. 1.

[18] The Cooper forum at the Genforum site has an extensive thread about Zadock Cooper, begun by Jerry Cooper on 24 August 2008. Posts in this thread discuss the children of Zadock and Elizabeth Edwards Cooper listed above. Posts also state that the family first lived in Spartanburg County near the border of Laurens County, and eventually moved across the Enoree River into Laurens County.

[19] 1870 federal census, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Reidville, Glenn Springs post office, p. 557 (dwelling/family 434; 2 July).

[20] 1850 federal census, Laurens County, South Carolina, p. 223B (dwelling/family 329; no date given).

[21] South Carolina Department of Archives and History, South Carolina Death Records 1925-1949Spartanburg County, vol. 34, #21204.

[22] See his Find a Grave memorial page created by Robin Farley Dixson Coon, which has a photo of his tombstone uploaded by a Find a Grave user whose username is gerald.

[23] 1870 federal census, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Reidville, Glenn Springs post office, p. 558A (family and dwelling 450; 4 July).

[24] 1850 federal census, Richland County, South Carolina, Columbia, p. 31 (dwelling 542, family 575; 22 October).

[25] 1860 federal census, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Southern Division, Enoree post office, p. 382 (dwelling 1187/family 1183; 13 September).

[26] 1820 federal census, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, p. 249.

[27] Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Deed Bk. R, pp. 237-8.

[28] Albert Bruce Pruitt, Spartanburg County/District, South Carolina, Deed Abstracts, Books A-T (1785-1827) (Easley, South Carolina: Southern Historical Press, 1988), pp. 640-1.

[29] Ibid., Deed Bk. T, pp. 359-360.

[30] See supra, n. 3.

[31] Spartanburg Co., South Carolina, Equity Court, 1837, box 18, package 6, Rachel Lindsey vs. Peggy Earnest et al.

[32] Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Deed Bk. V, pp. 564-5.

[33] See supra, n. 3.

[34] Ibid.

[35] See supra, n. 31.

[36] Spartanburg County Deed Bk. W, pp. 432-4.

[37] Ibid., Deed Bk. X, p. 32.  

[38] 1840 federal census, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, p. 120.

[39] Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Deed Bk. X, pp. 264-5.

[40] See supra, n. 31.

[41] Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Equity Court, 1846, box 31, package 7, Rachel Lindsey vs. William Halbert.

[42] Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Equity Court, 1869, box 50, package 2, Isaac Lindsey, etc., vs. John N. Lindsey.

[43] See supra, n. 24.

[44] 1850 federal census, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, p. 145A (dwelling and family 863; 27 August).

[45] 1850 federal slave schedule, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, unpaginated, 14 November. 

[46] Spartanburg County Deed Bk. DD, pp. 47-8.  

[47] See supra, n. 25.

[48] See supra, n. 23.

[49] See supra, n. 22.

[50] Spartanburg County, South Carolina, Administration and Bond Bk. B, p. 492. The original bond is also in Isaac Lindsey’s loose-papers estate file, Spartanburg County, South Carolina, file 1011.

5 thoughts on “Children of William Lindsey (1760/1770 – 1840) and Rachel Earnest — Elizabeth and Isaac

  1. “Terms like “idiot” and “lunatic” were, one suspects, fairly elastic terms at this period.” I don’t know if you have heard this, or if it can be independently verified, but I understand that these terms originally had distinct meanings.  That information was presented in a talk I attended many years ago at a summer workshop of the SC Genealogical Society; I do not recall who the speaker was.  My recollection is that “idiot” was the term applied to a person who had mental challenges from birth, while “lunatic” referred to someone who lost mental capacity later in life. Enjoying your posts.  —  John

    Like

    1. That’s generally my understanding of those two terms, too, John, though I wonder — given what seems to be perhaps a generational issue in this group of families — if there might have been some genetic issue that was being tagged as either “idiocy” or “lunacy.” I probably did not make myself clear in saying that, perhaps because I feel tentative about treading on this ground, given that I may be offering offense to my own family members. That’s surely not my intent, of course.

      Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.