As I’ve begun delving into documents regarding George and Elizabeth’s children and their families, and into published accounts (including family trees) about these folks, I’ve found there’s a world of misinformation and confusion to sort through, with documents that are not always clear or even accessible. What follows represents my best attempt to provide accurate information about the children of George Rice and Elizabeth Brooks, given the limited information I can find about some of them — and the confusion created by endless misinformation now circulating in published accounts including online ones.
As I noted in a previous posting, the confusion begins with determining who George and Elizabeth’s six children even were. For a long time now, incorrect lists of those children have circulated in many places. We know from George Rice’s 1792 will in Woodford County, Kentucky, that he had six children, but the will does not name those children. The will of Elizabeth Brooks Rice names only one child, her daughter Rebecca, wife of George W. Kiger.
As the posting I’ve just linked also shows, George and Elizabeth’s children are named in a list of heirs found in an Augusta County, Virginia, chancery court case file for the suit of Province McCormick vs. the heirs of George Rice. In his August 1802 complaint initiating the suit, McCormick states that the children of George and Elizabeth Rice were Betsy (husband William McCormick), Mary (husband Joshua Wilson), Ruth (husband Micajah Roach), an unnamed daughter married to James McDonald, George, and Edmund, who had died before August 1802, bequeathing his property to his nephew Jehu Rice. As the posting linked at the start of the preceding paragraph also notes, court case files and deed records for a number of years following this provide further information about George and Elizabeth’s children and their whereabouts up to 1816.
Given the amount of information about the children of George Rice and Elizabeth Brooks found in these records, which are discussed in detail in the previous posting I’m citing, and given George Rice’s extensive landholdings (see here and here on that point), most of which descended to his children, you’d think it would not be too difficult to hunt up information documenting the lives of each of his children in detail. It actually proves to be quite a challenge, in part because various researchers have misidentified a number of those children and their spouses, and because published histories mentioning these families contain conflicting information.
Here’s my account of the children of George Rice and Elizabeth Brooks — an incomplete account, with further research certainly warranted (and this account will be broken into several postings):
1. Ruth Rice was born in 1769 in Frederick County. We know her birth year both from her death record, which states that Ruth Roach was aged 83 when she died on 27 March 1852 in Greenup County, Kentucky, and from her listing on the 1850 federal census, where her age was given as 81 as she was listed in the household of her grandson Adolphus Lafayette Reid in Greenup County on 26 July 1850.
I am assuming that Ruth was the first child of George and Elizabeth Brooks Rice, since she’s first in the list of George and Elizabeth’s children provided by Bartholomew Smith in a 15 April 1808 complaint initiating a lawsuit Smith filed in Augusta chancery court against George Rice’s executors has the first three children listed in the same order as in Province McCormick’s list, but places Edmund between Mary and George and Rebecca after George. As previous postings have noted, I think George Rice and Elizabeth Brooks married about 1767, and I’m basing that date in part on the documented date of birth of Ruth as their first child.
Documenting Micajah Roach’s Life Before Marriage to Ruth Rice
Ruth Rice and Micajah Roach received license to marry on 4 April 1786 in Frederick County, Maryland. Regarding Micajah’s life prior to his marriage, there are some interesting documents. The register of births, marriages, and burials kept by Fairfax Friends Monthly Meeting in Loudoun County, Virginia, shows him born 27th 9th month 1761, the son of Richard Roach and Hannah Sands, members of the Fairfax Friends Meeting.
Fairfax Meeting minutes then document Micajah’s expulsion from this Quaker meeting on 25th 9th month 1779 after he enlisted in the army and refused to leave military service when his Quaker brethren entreated him to do so. It was reported to the meeting on 22nd 5th month 1779 that he had joined the army. Fairfax minutes for 26th 6th month 1779 state that Friends had met with Micajah and encouraged him to resign from the military, but he remained obstinate.
At this meeting, three Friends appointed to treat with Micajah reported that he did not appear “as sensible as could be desired of his having deviated from the peaceable Principles Truth leads into,” so Abel Janney, John Hirst, Stephen Gregg, Joseph Janney, and Mahlon Janney were then appointed to treat with him further “with respect to his enlisting and other parts of his Declension from the appearance of a Friend.”
At the meeting held on 24th 7th month 1779, the Friends previously appointed to treat with Micajah Roach then reported to the meeting that they had found him “much in a spirit of liberty and not much likelihood of his return” to the Friends. The meeting then decided that testimony against Micajah should go forth, with Benjamin Purdom and Mahlon Janney appointed to produce this and report it to him.
On 28th 8th month 1779, the testimony against Micajah was approved at Fairfax Monthly Meeting, and he was then dismissed from the meeting on 25th 9th month 1779. In marrying Micajah Roach in April 1786, Ruth Rice was marrying a man who had formerly been a Quaker, from a family with Quaker roots, who had chosen to serve in the American Revolution as her father had also done. Loudoun County, where the Roach family lived, is the next county east of Frederick County, where the Rices lived. Frederick County, Maryland, where Ruth and Micajah married in 1786, borders Loudoun on the north. Like Frederick County, Virginia, both Loudoun County, Virginia, and Frederick County, Maryland, had a strong Quaker presence in this period. The Fairfax Friends Monthly Meeting began in 1733 when Amos Janney and wife Mary moved from Bucks County, Pennsylvania, to Waterford in what was then Fairfax County, Virginia. A meeting house was built of logs in 1741, and in 1744 a monthly meeting began with the name Fairfax, the county name. When Loudoun was formed from Fairfax in 1757, the Fairfax Quaker community at Waterford fell into Loudoun County.
Ruth and Micajah’s Years in Virginia
As noted previously, sources about George Rice discussed in previous postings provide a good deal of information about the whereabouts of those children in the period between 1792 and 1816. A previous posting tells us that Micajah Roach was a witness to 14 March 1789 deeds George and Elizabeth Rice made to Bartholomew Smith and Henry Crum in Frederick County, Virginia, documents that seem to place Micajah and wife Ruth in Virginia at this date.
A codicil to George Rice’s 1792 will in Woodford County, Kentucky, evidently with the same date as the will itself (4 August 1792) states that Micajah Roach was living on land owned by George Rice when the will was made, and should be allowed to continue living there for ten years. The will does not specify where Micajah and Ruth were living in 1792. Since it made Micajah an executor, it’s tempting to think that he and Ruth had moved to Kentucky with George and Elizabeth by this point.
But a 23 April 1802 deed for 150 acres in Frederick County cited in Province McCormick’s chancery court case against George Rice’s heirs suggests that the land of George Rice on which Micajah Roach had previously lived — the 150 acres in question in the lawsuit — was in Frederick County. McCormick alleged that James McDonald had deeded that land to him as executor of George Rice, but Micajah Roach refused to approve the deed as the other executor. According to McCormick, McDonald was living on this piece of land in 1803. Note that if this is the land on which Micajah Roach was living in 1792, per George Rice’s will, the will gave Micajah use of the land for ten years — which would have ended in 1802. These documents were discussed in a previous posting.
Another indicator that Micajah and Ruth Roach may have been living in Frederick County when George Rice made his will in 1792 in Kentucky: the will of Micajah’s brother-in-law Edmund Rice on 20 April 1796 in Frederick County makes Micajah co-executor along with another brother-in-law, Joshua Wilson, husband of Mary Rice. Edmund’s will was discussed here.
And when the Potowmac Guardian and Berkeley Advertiser announced on 14 July 1796 that an estate sale was to be held at George Rice’s late dwelling house in Frederick County, Virginia, it says that his executors James McDonald and Micajah Roach had arranged the sale, another indicator that Micajah and Ruth may have still been in Virginia in 1796….
Ruth and Micajah Move to Kentucky
Micajah and Ruth may have been in Kentucky by 6 September 1798, since, as we’ve seen, on that date Micajah was a chain carrier when 100 acres of Revolutionary bounty land that Hezekiah Lindsey had assigned to George Rice were surveyed in either Kentucky or Ohio. The Roach family had settled in Bardstown in Nelson County, Kentucky, by 19 October 1802, when county court minutes show Micajah serving on a jury on that date.
On 25 May 1803, Micajah and Ruth bought lot 94 in Bardstown. The vendors were Benjamin and Catherine Frye of Logan County. The Roaches were buying this Bardstown lot as they began operating an inn in the town.
On 31 May 1803, Micajah published an advertisement carried on 8 June by the Tennessee Gazette, stating that he had moved to the house in “Bairdstown” lately occupied by Joshua Wilson (husband of his sister-in-law Mary Rice, though the ad does not state this), a house called the “ſign of the Indian Queen” near the courthouse in Bardstown, and he was “determined to exert himſelf to accommodate travelers in the beſt manner the country will afford, excellent ſtables, clover lotts, &c.” (See a digital image of this advertisement at the head of the posting.)
According to Harriette Simpson Arnow in her Flowering of the Cumberland, a notice in Tennessee Gazette on 14 January 1801 shows Micajah and Ruth already operating Sign of the Indian Queen at Bardstown then, but I don’t find that announcement in that issue of the Tennessee Gazette. The Gazette notice Micajah published on 31 May 1803 suggests that he had only recently acquired the property from his brother-in-law Joshua Wilson.
A biography of Micajah and Ruth’s grandson Adolphus Lafayette Reid in A History of Kentucky and Kentuckians states that Micajah and Ruth moved first from Virginia to Louisville, Kentucky, and from there to Bardstown. Adolphus was a son of Micajah and Ruth’s daughter Caroline Roach, who married Darius Bourne Reid, son of Samuel Reid and Charity Bourne, on 13 May 1820 in Wilkinson County, Mississippi. This source states,
Caroline Roach, mother of him to whom this sketch is dedicated, was a daughter of Micajah and Ruth (Rice) Roach, both of whom were born and reared near Fairfax, Virginia, whence they came to Kentucky in the early pioneer days. For a time Micajah and Ruth Roach resided in the city of Louisville and later they located at Bardstown. Ruth (Rice) Roach was one of the heirs to the estate of Captain George Rice, a Virginian who had large land grants in various sections of Kentucky. Mrs. Roach received as her portion lands in Greenup and Lewis counties. Of her children Caroline Roach, mother of the subject of this review, resided on the Greenup county farm and died there in early life. She was the mother of four children, three of whom died in infancy. Adolphus L. being the only one to attain to years of maturity.
According to Dixie Hibbs in her history of Bardstown, after operating the Sign of the Indian Queen for a period of time, Micajah and Ruth then bought the Columbian Inn in Bardstown, which Ruth ran until 1818 following Micajah’s death in 1805. Sarah B. Smith states that the Columbian Inn was constructed between 1785 and 1790 on a lot owned by Isaac Morrison at 201 East Stephen Foster Street in Bardtown. Smith indicates that a fire partly destroyed the original building in 1856 and it was maintained as a residence after that time. The Columbian Inn was evidently on lot #94 in Bardstown: see Ruth’s sale of the lot in 1818, below.
A biography of James E. Wilson, son of George Patrick Rice Wilson and Sarah Spencer, states that George’s parents were living in Bardstown in 1802 when George was born and then moved to Louisville, residing there until 1820 when they moved to Corydon, Indiana. The biography does not name George’s mother Mary Rice, but states that his father was Joshua Wilson, a Virginia native.
From other sources that I’ll discuss in detail when I focus on Mary Rice and husband Joshua Wilson, we learn that in 1804, Joshua and Mary acquired Captain John Postlethwaite’s inn at Lexington, which they then operated as Wilson’s Inn for a number of years before moving to Louisville. Joshua and Mary were running the inn in 1805 when they entertained Aaron Burr and his daughter Theodosia. In 1808, English traveler Fortescue Cuming found the inn comfortable, well-maintained, and well-appointed, and noted that its well-dressed hostess (Mary Rice Wilson) presided at the dinner table “with ease and propriety.”
Joshua Wilson received license in Fayette County on 14 May 1804 to keep a tavern at his house in Lexington, previously occupied by John Postlethwaite. On 5 June 1804, Captain Postlethwaite placed an announcement of the inn’s change of ownership in the Tennessee Gazette, noting that Joshua Wilson, formerly of Bardstown, had acquired his inn and tavern.
On 25 March 1804, Micajah Roach bought from John and Magdalena Weller, all of Nelson County, lot #104 in Bardstown adjoining property Micajah already owned. The Wellers acknowledged the deed on 30 March and it was recorded on 21 April (Nelson County, Kentucky, Deed Bk. 6, pp. 285-6)
In June 1805, Micajah Roach died at Bardstown. A 9 December 1816 ruling by the Kentucky Court of Appeals regarding a Nelson County circuit course case I’ll discuss later notes that the first account of Micajah’s estate was compiled in June 1805, which indicates that he died in that month. On 9 July 1805, giving bond with her son Warner Roach and with Atkinson Hill, his widow Ruth applied for administration of his estate. I have not found any other estate documents or any indication of where Micajah is buried. Documents in the chancery court case file for the case filed by Province McCormick against the Rice heirs confirm that Micajah died at some point between 2 January 1804 and February 1806. After February 1806, the suit’s documents begin speaking of James McDonald, the other executor George Rice had appointed for his will along with Micajah Roach, as sole executor.
The 15 April 1808 chancery court complaint of Bartholomew Smith against George Rice’s heirs mentioned above confirms that Ruth Roach was living out of the commonwealth of Virginia when the complaint was filed. It also indicates that she was widowed by this date.
The August 1809 account of William McCormick as administrator of George Rice’s estate in Frederick County, Virginia, also confirms that Micajah Roach had died prior to this date, since it states that a share of the estate was paid directly to Ruth Roach, whereas the share going to Rebecca Rice, who was living, was paid to her husband George W. Kiger.
As we’ve seen previously, on 28 February 1811, George Rice’s heirs including Ruth Roach deeded property to Bartholomew Smith in Frederick County, Virginia, as a result of his chancery court lawsuit against the heirs. This document, too, confirms that Ruth was a widow by this date.
On 25 March 1812, Ruth published an ad that was carried by the Kentucky Gazette on 26 May 1812 and subsequently, in which she advertised for sale her share of 10,000 acres lying on the Ohio River at the mouth of the Big Sandy River. The ad states that the survey of the land is in the name of John Harvie, Charles M. Thruston, and Edmund Taylor, [and?] the heirs of George Rice, deceased, of whom Ruth was one, and that her share of the land was 555½ acres. Ruth had no description of the land but had been “informed it is very rich and valuable land.” Ruth offered to sell the land at a reduced price for cash or enslaved persons, and stated that persons interested might inquire of Richard Roach at Postlethwaite’s Inn in Lexington or of her at Bardstown. Richard was Ruth’s son, and was evidently living and/or working at the inn in Lexington his aunt and uncle Mary and Joshua Wilson had bought from John Postlethwaite. The Wilsons had perhaps moved to Louisville by this date.
As we’ve also seen, on 14 and 21 August 1815, George Rice’s heirs including Ruth Roach made a deed of land in Frederick County, Virginia, to William and Province McCormick. Following this on 12 August 1816, the Rice heirs then quitclaimed to Jehu Rice, son of Elizabeth Rice, George and Elizabeth Rice’s daughter, their share of any land in Kentucky previously belonging to their brother Edmund. The deed records Ruth Roach’s acknowledgment at Bardstown on 19 August 1816, and tells us that Joshua and Mary Wilson were living in Louisville when they acknowledged the deed on 12 August. Note this quitclaim document states that Jehu Rice had sold two lots in Louisville to Joshua and Mary Wilson by August 1816, which had come to him from his uncle Edmund Rice.
On 19 August 1815, Ruth Roach of Nelson County, Kentucky, sold to Joshua Wilson of Louisville her one-sixth share of lot #133 on Market Street in Louisville (Jefferson County, Kentucky, Deed Bk. K, pp. 294-5). The deed states that the lot had been conveyed by George Slaughter and his wife to George Rice, and Ruth had inherited her sixth share as George Rice’s heir. Ruth signed the deed and acknowledged it in Nelson County on 21 August, and it was recorded on 6 September.
The previously mentioned Nelson County circuit court case Roach v. Hubbard, which was apparently heard there in 1816 and then referred to the Kentucky Court of Appeals which handed down a ruling on 9 December 1816, suggests that Micajah left Ruth in debt, with creditors trying to lay claim to her Bardstown property following his death. The Court of Appeals ruling upheld Ruth’s title to their Bardstown lot, but I suspect that fiscal problems following Micajah’s death may have accounted for her decision to cease operation of the Columbian Inn at Bardstown in 1818. The Kentucky Court of Appeals abstract of the case states, by the way, that Atkinson Hill, with whom Ruth gave bond for administration of her husband Micajah Roach’s estate, had made an agreement with Ruth to permit her to retain ownership of her Bardstown property, he having held a note of debt against Benjamin Frye, from whom Micajah and Ruth purchased the Bardstown property.
On 1 October 1818, Ruth Roach sold lot #94 in Bardstown to James Green and John Bowling, also of Nelson County. Ruth signed the deed in the presence of county clerk Benjamin Grayson, and acknowledged it the same day. It was then recorded on 31 December (Nelson County, Kentucky, Deed Bk. 13, pp. 211-2). This sale of a lot represents, I think, Ruth’s sale of her Columbian Inn property.
After this point, I’ve found no documentation of Ruth Rice Roach’s life until she’s enumerated on the 1850 federal census, discussed above, and until her death is recorded on 27 March 1852 in Greenup County, Kentucky, death records. The 1850 census record indicates that Ruth was living at the end of her life with the family of her grandson Adolphus Lafayette Reid, who was a merchant in Greenup County’s seat, Greenup, and was elected a county judge and sheriff. Ruth may be buried at Riverview cemetery in Greenup, Greenup County, Kentucky, along with Adolphus L. Reid and his family, but I do not have proof of this.
Children of Micajah Roach and Ruth Rice
I have found one document naming the children of Micajah and Ruth Rice Roach. This is a court order published in the Frankfort, Kentucky, newspaper The Argus of Western America on 17 November 1824, notifying Micajah’s heirs of a lawsuit filed against them in Nelson County, Kentucky, circuit court. The suit had been filed by James Crutcher. The court order states that Micajah had the following heirs in addition to wife Ruth: Warner Roach, Richard Roach, George Roach, Edmund Roach, Lewis Roach, Griffin Roach, Peyton Roach, and Caroline Roach. By 1824, Peyton had died and Caroline had married Mr. “Read.” All of these heirs were living out of state in 1824, and were being notified of the legal action and summoned to court. Dixie Hibbs states, by the way, in her previously cited history of Bardstown (p. 17) that James Crutcher had a tavern at the Sign of the Eagle in Bardstown in 1795, and the Benjamin Frye from whom Micajah and Ruth bought their Bardstown property had the Sign of the Faithful Witness there in 1793, with Joshua Wilson first opening his tavern in 1799. As Micajah’s 1803 ad announcing his proprietorship of Sign of the Indian Queen, he acquired the tavern from Joshua Wilson, who had gotten it from James Crutcher.
The previously mentioned 1816 Nelson County, Kentucky, circuit court case regarding Micajah’s estate also identifies Warner Roach, who gave bond with Ruth for administration of the estate, as Micajah and Ruth’s son, and states that he was in Mississippi as his father’s estate was being settled. Various online trees list him as a son of Micajah and Ruth, frequently misidentifying him as “Warren” Roach.
He was in Franklin County, Mississippi, by 1810, and in Claiborne County, Mississippi, on the 1820 federal census. An April 1829 federal land patent to him at the Ouachita land office in Louisiana shows him living in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana, by that date, and purchasing 639.5 acres of federal land in Madison Parish. The 1830 federal census shows him living in Concordia Parish, Louisiana — and I then lose sight of him.
We met Richard in the 1812 ad his mother placed advertising her land at the mouth of Big Sandy on the Ohio River. He would have been named for Micajah’s father. By the 1830s, he was living in Port Hudson, Louisiana, just downriver (down the Mississippi, that is) from Concordia Parish, where his brother Warner lived. A ledger Richard kept from 1832-5 as a merchant in Port Hudson has survived. I have found no further information about him.
I have not been able to find information about Micajah and Ruth’s sons George, Edmund, Peyton, and Lewis, beyond their listing in the 1824 Nelson County circuit court order discussed above. It is possible that Lewis is the Lewis Roach who owned a keelboat named Fair Trader that was built on the Ohio River and was registered for trade in New Orleans in 1821 — but I have no proof at all of that possibility.
Griffin T. Roach married Mary Wingate in Knox County, Indiana, on 18 September 1818 and by 1840 was living in Greenup County, Kentucky. The 1850 federal census shows Griffin and Mary and their family living in Greenup County, and assigns Griffin a birth year of 1798, with Virginia as his birthplace. In 1860, he and wife Mary and son John W. were living at Ironton in Lawrence County, Ohio, with the federal census indicating he was born about 1797 in Virginia. Both of these censuses show him with the occupation of tanner (a farmer tanner in 1850). By 1870, he and wife Mary were at Bedford in Wayne County, Illinois, again with son John W., and Griffin was farming. This census has him born in 1798 in Virginia.
Mary Wingate Roach is buried in Bunker cemetery at Rinard in Wayne County, Illinois, with a tombstone identifying her as Mrs. G.T. Roach, born 14 February 1798, died 24 August 1873. A Cheppette Timmerman family at Ancestry states that Griffin died 25 March 1875 at Rinard, Illinois, but does not provide documentation for this information.
The previously cited biography of Adolphus Lafayette Reid provides information about Micajah and Ruth’s daughter Caroline, who married Darius Bourne Reid on 13 May 1820 in Wilkinson County, Mississippi. Wilkinson County is right across the Mississippi River from Concordia Parish, Louisiana, where Warner Roach is found in 1830. It also borders Franklin County, where Warner is found by 1810. As we’ll see when I discuss Elizabeth Rice McCormick, sister of Ruth Rice Roach, Elizabeth and husband William McCormick had a daughter Ann, who married William Lindsey Pogue/Poage. After Ann’s death, William Lindsey Pogue married Caroline Roach, a daughter of Griffin T. Roach, Caroline Roach Reid’s brother.
As the biography of her son Adolphus L. Reid states, following her marriage to Darius Bourne Reid in Mississippi, Caroline Roach and husband Darius moved to Greenup County, Kentucky, and lived on Ruth’s land in that county, where Caroline died young. She died 3 February 1827 in Greenup County, with husband Darius dying there on 30 March 1849.
In my next posting, I’ll provide information about Micajah Roach and Ruth Rice’s second child Elizabeth.
 Woodford County, Kentucky, Will Bk. A, pp. 72-4.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Will Bk. 9, pp. 535-6.
 Province McCormick vs. Exrs. of George Rice, Augusta County, Virginia, Chancery Court 1808-143, case 106.
 Greenup County, Kentucky, Death Register 1852, p. 2; and 1850 federal census, Greenup County, Kentucky, dist. 1, p. 202 (dwelling 50, family 52; 26 July).
 Complaint of Bartholomew Smith, 15 April 1808, Bartholomew Smith vs. Exrs. of George Rice, Augusta County, Virginia, Chancery Court 1810-127, case 49.
 Frederick Co., Maryland, Index to Marriage Licenses 1778-1865 p. 325.
 Fairfax Monthly Meeting, Loudoun County, Virginia, Marriages, Births and Burials 1760-1892, p. 8; original register at Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania; available digitally at Ancestry in its collection entitled U.S., Quaker Meeting Records, 1681-1935.
 Fairfax Monthly Meeting, Loudoun County, Virginia, Minutes 1776-1802, p. 100; original register at Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania; available digitally at Ancestry in its collection entitled U.S., Quaker Meeting Records, 1681-1935.
 Asa Moore Janney, “The Quaker Settlement at Waterford,” in Waterford Perspectives, ed. Waterford Foundation (Waterford, Virginia: Waterford Foundation, 1983); online at the website History of Waterford, a National Historical Landmark.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Deed Bk. 21, pp. 960, 962.
 See supra, n. 1.
 See supra, n. 3.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Will Bk. 6, pp. 281-2.
 The minutes for this court session are transcribed by Karen Fowler Caldwell and David C. Fogle at their website, A Fogle Family History Documenting the Events and Genealogy of John Adam Fogle from Maryland to Kentucky and His Descendants. The county court order books filmed and digitized by the Family History Library in Salt Lake City and available at the Family Search site do not contain the 1802 minutes.
 Logan County, Kentucky, Deed Bk. A, pp. 5-6.
 Tennessee Gazette (8 June 1803), p. 2, col. 3.
 Harriette Simpson Arnow, The Flowering of the Cumberland (New York: Macmillan, 1963), p. 358.
 E. Polk Johnson, A History of Kentucky and Kentuckians (Lewis, 1912), vol. 3, pp. 1517-8.
 Dixie Hibbs, Bardstown: Hospitality, History and Bourbon (Mount Pleasant, South Carolina: Arcadia, 2002), p. 43.
 Sarah B. Smith, Historic Nelson County, Its Towns and People (Bardstown: Nelson County Genealogical Roundtable, 1983), p. 97.
 Biographical and Historical Souvenir for the Counties of Clark, Crawford, Harrison, Floyd, Jefferson, Jennings, Scott and Washington, Indiana (Chicago: John M. Gresham, 1889), p. 119.
 See Robert Peter, History of Fayette County, Kentucky with an Outline Sketch of the Blue Grass Region (Chicago: O.L. Baskin, 1882), p. 281; Peter Brackney and Jim Gray, Lost Lexington, Kentucky (Charleston, South Carolina: The History Press, 2014), unpaginated; and William Elsey Connelley and Ellis Merton Coulter, History of Kentucky, vol. 2 (Chicago: American Historical Society, 1922), p. 1191-2, the latter citing Fortescue Cuming’s description of the inn in 1808: Fortescue Cuming, Sketches of a Tour to the Western Country (Pittsburgh: Cramer, Spear & Richbaum, 1810), p. 161.
 As cited in Connelley and Coulter, History of Kentucky, pp. 1191-2, citing “an old record book in the Fayette County Courthouse” and Tennessee Gazette.
 See Roach v. Hubbard (9 December 1816) in William Littell, Cases Selected from the Decisions of the Court of Appeals of Kentucky, not Heretofore Reported (Frankford: Amos Kendall, 1824), pp. 235-7.
 Nelson County, Kentucky, Administrators’ Bonds Bk. Feb 1804-April 1813, p. 45.
 See supra, n. 3.
 See supra, n. 5.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Will Bk. 9, pp. 158-9.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Deed Bk. 33, pp. 366-7.
 Kentucky Gazette (26 May 1812), p. 4, col. 3.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Deed Bk. 37, pp. 338-345, 431-9.
 Ibid., Bk. 39, pp. 150-5; and Kentucky Court of Appeals Deed Bk. R, pp. 161f.
 See supra, n. 4.
 The Argus of Western America (19 November 1824), p. 1, col. 1.
 See supra, n. 28.
 See supra, n. 34.
 The Find a Grave memorial page for Mary Wingate Roach in Bunker cemetery, Rinard, Illinois, misreads her stone to say that she died in 1823 instead of 1873, and that she was aged 25 years, 6 months, and 10 days. The year of death carved on the stone is 1873, and the inscription computing her age says she was aged 75 years, 6 months, and 10 days at her death.
 See supra, n. 22.