But by 1850, when she appears on the federal census as a student at the female academy in Fulton, Itawamba County, Mississippi, along with her niece Mary Jane, a daughter of John Wesley Lindsey and Margaret S. Gibson, Martha had joined her brother John in Itawamba County. (The link at the head of the posting provides documentation for this information.)
Martha’s Early Years in Lawrence County, Alabama, and Itawamba County, Mississippi
Martha was one of thirteen girls boarding at the house of Robert Overton Maupin and wife Louisa, who were operating the Fulton academy, when the 1850 census was taken. Sometime after 1850, she became headmistress of a female academy in old Richmond in Itawamba County, where, according to W.L. Clayton in a reminiscence published in the Tupelo Journal in 1905 (again, this is documented in the posting linked at the head of this posting), Martha did an exemplary job as a teacher and administrator. As the excerpt of Clayton’s reminiscence at the top of the posting indicates, he found her a firm and determined teacher who was at the same time gentle and loving to her students — “apt to teach and loving her profession.”
Martha’s brother John was a merchant at Van Buren in Itawamba County at the time she and her niece Mary Jane were attending the Maupins’ academy in Fulton — and apparently a rather successful merchant, so it seems likely that it was he who paid for the schooling of his younger sister and her niece. Following the death of his wife Margaret S. Gibson sometime after 4 August 1860, John married a second time on 7 August 1866 to Robert Overton Maupin’s widow Louisa. Robert O. Maupin had died 9 March 1860 at Fulton. (Again, please see the posting linked at the top of this one for further information and documentation.)
Martha Marries James Madison Williams
Martha’s teaching career ended on 1 February 1856, when she married James Madison Williams, son of early settlers of Richmond, Owen Williams and wife Nancy Keaton/Keyton, at her brother John’s house in Van Buren. Clayton remembered the wedding and wrote about it as follows:
But however strong she may have been in many respects, she was not proof against cupid’s arrow, and so, like other women, she was weak enough to be caught in his toils, and on Feb. 1, 1865, she was led to hymen’s altar by James M. Williams at old Van Buren, on the Bigby River, at the home of her brother, John W. Lindsey. I remember the circumstance very well, having attended the marriage, going from Richmond, where the bridegroom lived, amid the snow of winter. It was a surprise wedding and placed on Friday evening to more effectually hide the purpose of the gathering, it being given out as a party gathering for young people for social intercourse, and not even the young ladies who acted as bridesmaids knew of the purpose of the meeting till after they arrived at the place for the marriage.W.L. Clayton, “Pen Pictures of the Olden Time,” Tupelo Journal (14 July 1905), p. 3, col. 3-4
Then Clayton adds,
And from then on till now, through sunshine and shade, joy and sorrow, hope and fear, sickness and death, they two have been one. For many years, they were our nearest neighbors, and my wife and Mrs. Williams spent many pleasant social hours together, and for all those years the gentle and loveable Mr. Williams was in business in Tupelo, and no man ever made a better record for upright dealing and business integrity than he, and now, when the business time of life has passed with them, they have returned to their old home town to wait and watch and look and hope. May their declining years be the mellowing ones of their lives, so that when the reaper comes, he that soweth and they that reap may rejoice together.W.L. Clayton, “Pen Pictures of the Olden Time,” Tupelo Journal (14 July 1905), p. 3, col. 3-4
Martha Ann Lindsey and James M. Williams were married by Reverend William Carothers Thomas, a Baptist minister of Itawamba County who was John Wesley Lindsey’s brother-in-law: he married Margaret Gibson Lindsey’s sister Nancy Jane Gibson in Lawrence County, Alabama, on 9 January 1838. As Clayton also notes, James M. Williams had a sister Lou (Louise) who married Henry Martin in the fall of 1856, head of the male academy at Richmond which Clayton attended. This is the Martin mentioned above, to whom Clayton was going to school when Martha headed Richmond’s female academy.
As the posting about John Wesley Lindsey linked above notes, in a reminiscence published by Itawamba County Times, Zereda Greene indicates that when Martha Ann Lindsey was heading Richmond’s female academy, the town also had a male academy attended by W.L. Clayton. Greene says that the two academies offered different curricula: while the females were taught needlepoint, philosophy, chemistry, and astronomy, the males learned Latin, Greek, English, and the sciences.
By 1860, James and Martha were settled at Fulton in Itawamba County, where the federal census of that year lists James M. Williams as a farmer born in Alabama with $10,000 real worth and $5000 personal worth. Wife Martha A. is 30, born in Alabama. In the household are daughter Fannie B., 2, along with James J. Weaks and Lewis A. Gentry, a farmer and farm laborer.
At some point during the Civil War — his service papers do not have a date of enlistment or conscription — James M. Williams joined Company I of Mississippi’s consolidated 11th Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Thomas C. Ashcraft. As Family Search’s Wiki page for this military unit states, Ashcraft’s cavalry regiment was organized in May 1864, so it seems to me likely that this is when James joined the unit. The service packet shows that James was a prisoner of war after his company surrendered to federal General Canby at Citronelle, Alabama, on 4 May 1865, and the members of the company were then paroled at Columbus, Mississippi, in the same month. Prior to that, it appears he may also have been captured at Vicksburg in 1864 and then sent to a parole camp at Demopolis, Alabama, by 1 April 1864.
As the 1860 federal census indicates, by 1860, James and Martha had had a daughter Fannie. Frances Lindsey Williams was born at Fulton on 27 February 1858. I’ll provide further information about her below. On 2 June 1862, a second daughter was born to the couple — Carrie O. Williams. Another daughter, Lula L. Williams, was born 12 June 1866, and a final child, Nannie Williams, was born 18 January 1869. As we’ll see in a moment, of these four daughters, only Fannie lived to marry. Carrie died as a girl and Lula and Nannie as young unmarried women.
The Move to Tupelo
In 1868, the Williams family moved from Fulton to Tupelo in Lee County, Mississippi. The family is enumerated there on the 1870 federal census, which lists James M. Williams as a tinner with $800 real worth and $800 personal worth, aged 40 and born in Alabama. Wife Martha A. is also 40 and born in Alabama. In the household are children Fannie W., 12, Carrie O., 8, Lula L., 4, and Nannie, 2, all born in Mississippi. Fannie and Carrie are in school.
If I’m not mistaken, a tinner is a tinsmith or someone working with tin in a manufacturing setting. The 1880 federal census lists James as a dealer in stoves, so it’s possible his involvement in the tin business had something to do with producing kitchenware. In his Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Dunbar Rowland notes that by the early 1900s, Tupelo was “a manufacturing city of importance,” and that its location at the junction of major railroad lines not far from Alabama’s coal fields made it an important district for manufacturing.
The 1 May 1877 letter that Martha’s older sister Sarah Lindsey Speake wrote from Oakville, Alabama, to their sister Margaret Lindsey Hunter in Coushatta, Louisiana, discussed in a previous posting, states that Sarah would very much like to go to Mississippi to see Martha, who was in poor health. Sarah also tells Margaret that Martha’s daughter Fannie, who was then 19 years old, was teaching. As we’ll see below, the 1940 census indicates that Fannie did four years of college work, and presumably graduated from college, though when and where this was, I don’t know.
The 1880 federal census shows the family continuing to live in Tupelo, where J.M. Williams, 50 and born in Alabama, was dealing in stoves. The census notes that his father was born in South Carolina and his mother in Georgia. Wife M.A. was also 50 and also born in Alabama, with a father born in South Carolina and a mother born in Virginia. In the household were children Carrie, 17, Lula, 13, and Nannie, 11, all born in Mississippi. The family was living on Main Street in Tupelo. James and Martha’s daughter Fannie had married on 27 March 1879 in Tupelo to James Monroe Hightower, son of Thomas S. Hightower and Keziah Monroe Armistead.
On 20 July 1881, James and Martha lost their daughter Carrie O. Williams. Carrie is buried in Glenwood cemetery in Tupelo along with her parents and her sisters Lula and Nannie, with her tombstone noting that she was aged 19 years, 3 months, and 11 days at the time of her death.
The Williams Family Moves to Jasper, Alabama, Then Back to Tupelo and, Finally, Shannon, Mississippi
In 1888, the family of James and Martha Williams moved from Tupelo to Jasper in Walker County, Alabama, according to James’s obituary published in the Tupelo Journal on 22 November 1907. Jasper, which is about 95 miles east of Tupelo, had been officially incorporated as a town in 1886, and in that year, the Kansas City-Memphis Railroad completed a line through Jasper. In 1888, the Sheffield and Birmingham Railroad ran a line through Jasper and the town’s population boomed.
Perhaps the move to Jasper also had something to do with kinship connections. Walker County is contiguous to Jefferson County, Alabama, where James M. Williams was born.
In 1893, tragedy struck James and Martha’s family, with the death of daughter Nannie on 26 June and daughter Lula on 24 October. Nannie was 24 and Lula was 27. Neither had married. Both were buried in Glenwood cemetery in Tupelo (and see also here), where their parents are buried, though it seems that both died in Jasper, Alabama.
In 1883 James and Martha’s surviving daughter Fannie moved with husband James M. Hightower to Little Rock, Arkansas, where the Hightower family lived nine years before moving to Pine Bluff, Arkansas, in 1892. A number of sources suggest that J.M. Hightower had multiple business interests in Little Rock in these years: an advertisement in the Arkansas Gazette on 7 October 1884 shows him as president of Wiggs Drug Store on Main Street; repeated newspaper advertisements and articles in the latter part of the 1890s also show him owning a grocery store at Fifth and Main; and in July 1890, he appears as a founding incorporator of and investor in a newly formed company, the National Railway Water Company in Little Rock.
On 27 July 1894, the Pine Bluff paper the Daily Graphic carried a notice that Mr. and Mrs. J.M. Williams were in Pine Bluff from Jasper, Alabama, visiting their daughter Mrs. J.M. Hightower.
The 1900 federal census shows James and Martha continuing to live in Jasper. The census states that James M. Williams was born in January 1830 in Alabama, with a father born in North Carolina and a mother in Georgia. His occupation is justice of the peace. Wife Martha A., the only other person in the household, was born in August 1829 in Alabama with a father born in Kentucky and a mother in Virginia. Martha’s occupation is given as milliner. The couple were living at 37 E. 19th Street in Jasper, and had been married 44 years; they had had 5 children, of whom only one was living.
Four years later in 1904, James and Martha returned to Tupelo, and in 1906, they moved to Shannon, a community about 10 miles south of Tupelo, where they lived with James’s sister Lou, who was mentioned previously. Her first husband Henry Martin had died during the Civil War, and in 1865, she had remarried to William H. Parks, who died in 1904.
On 9 February 1906, the Tupelo Journal published an article noting that James M. and Martha Lindsey Williams had just celebrated their golden wedding anniversary at Shannon, where they were living with Mrs. Lou Parks. As the article states, the couple had married 1 February 1856 at Van Buren on the Tombigbee River (“old Van Beuren [sic], on the Bigby river in old Itawamba county”).
James Madison Williams died at Shannon on 15 November 1907, and was buried in Glenwood cemetery in Tupelo. An obituary was published in Tupelo Journal on the 22nd, providing a biographical sketch of his life. James’s tombstone, of which there is a photo at his Find a Grave memorial page, states that he was born 17 February 1830 and died 15 November 1907.
Martha’s Final Years in Pine Bluff, Arkansas
Following James’s death, Martha moved to Pine Bluff, Arkansas, to live with her daughter Fannie and husband James M. Hightower. The 1910 federal census enumerates her in the Hightowers’ household at 1400 Third Avenue in Pine Bluff, giving her age as 80. Her son-in-law James M. Hightower was a dealer in wholesale grain. When the family had just arrived in Pine Bluff, the Daily Graphic noted that James was an accountant for John H. Talbot & Co.
On 20 November 1914, the Daily Graphic published a notice that Mrs. J.M. Williams, mother of Mrs. J.M. Hightower, had become gravely ill at Tupelo and the chances of her recovery were not favorable. Her daughter had left on the Cotton Belt train to be with her mother.
On 25 November, the Jackson, Mississippi, paper Daily News published an obituary of Martha, stating that she had died at Tupelo on a visit to her nephew J.C. Marshall. The obituary states that Martha was living with her daughter Mrs. J. M. Hightower of Pine Bluff, Arkansas, at the time. Mrs. Hightower had arrived in Tupelo shortly before her mother died, and the funeral was on the 24th at the Baptist church in Tupelo.
J.C. Marshall was John Calvin Marshall, son of Theodore A. Marshall and Corilla Lindsey. Corilla was a daughter of Martha’s brother John Wesley Lindsey. The obituary also states that Martha was survived by nieces Mrs. C.H. Clifton and Mrs. W.L. Joyner of Tupelo. These were Etta/Ethel Williams, who had married Charles H. Clifton, a druggist in Tupelo, and Kate McGaughey, wife of William Leonidas Joyner, whose parents were Amanda Eunice Williams and William Houston McGaughey. Amanda was a sister of James Madison Williams.
The Tupelo Journal also published an obituary of Martha on 27 November 1914, providing additional details about her life and death, including incorrect information that she was born in Mississippi.
Martha Ann Lindsey Williams is buried with her husband James Madison Williams at Glenwood cemetery in Tupelo.
Frances Lindsey Williams and Husband James Monroe Hightower
The lives of James M. and Fannie Williams Hightower after they settled in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, are well-documented by multiple sources. On 28 March 1939, the Little Rock paper the Arkansas Democrat published an announcement of their 60th wedding anniversary with a photo of the couple. This notes that, after the family settled in Pine Bluff, J.M. Hightower had initially been with John M. Talbot Co., then became purchasing agent for Pine Bluff Lumber Co., and finally went into the wholesale grain and feed business before he retired in 1927. His wife was president for 2 years of the David Owen Dodd UDC chapter, and past president of the American Legion Auxiliary. The article lists the couple’s children.
James M. Hightower’s obituary in Little Rock’s Arkansas Gazette on 22 Augusst 1940 notes that he was born in Houston, Mississippi, on 5 December 1851 and had moved to Little Rock 58 years prior to his death at Pine Bluff on 21 August 1940. He had died at his home on 1400 W. Second Avenue. The obituary also notes that James had been an alderman of the city and was survived by his wife, by sons Erskine W. of Houston, Armistead L. of Chicago, and Loys of Pine Bluff, and daughters Mrs. W.L. Toney and Miss Caro Hightower of Pine Bluff. A brother, C.J. Hightower, was in Siloam Springs.
A brief biography of James in Pine Bluff’s Semi-Weekly Graphic on 8 August 1896 says that he had been a councilman for the city’s 4th ward and was a Mississippi native who came to Little Rock in 1883 and then to Pine Bluff in 1892. In 1896 he was chair of the Sanitary Committee and a member of the Finance and Fire Department Committees.
Frances’s obituary in the Arkansas Gazette on 19 June 1958 states that she had died on 17 June at the home of J. Loys Hightower near Pine Bluff, and was the widow of James Monroe Hightower. She was a native of Richmond, Mississippi, daughter of James Madison and Martha Lindsey Williams, a Baptist, and had lived at Pine Bluff since 1892. She was a charter member of the first City Beautiful Commission, honorary state president of the UDC, and a past president of the Pine Bluff UDC. Survivors were, in addition to son Loys of Pine Bluff, sons Erskine W. of Ingram, Texas and Armistead of St. Petersburg, Florida, and daughters Mrs. W.L. Toney and Miss Carolyn Hightower of Pine Bluff. She was to be buried at Graceland cemetery in Pine Bluff.
On 23 June 1909 in Pine Bluff, Lorine Hightower, daughter of James M. and Frances Williams Hightower, married Pine Bluff mayor William Lunsford Toney, son of William Lunsford Toney and Martha Clarinda Kimbrough. The Toney family had moved from Mississippi to Greenback plantation near Pine Bluff in 1878. William L. Toney’s brother Hardin Kimbrough “Kemp” Toney represented Jefferson County in the Arkansas Senate, 1905-1913, and in the Arkansas House of Representatives, 1931-1949. Pine Bluff’s first airfield, Toney Field, was named for this family.
James and Frances and their family appear on the federal census from 1900 through 1940 in Pine Bluff, with the 1900 census noting that James was a bookkeeper and that the family lived at 1402 Second Avenue. By 1910, James had begun his wholesale grain business and the family lived at 1400 Second Avenue. The 1920 census shows James continuing with this business. On this census, son Erskine, a bank secretary, who had married in 1917, was living next door to his parents at 1408 W. Second Avenue. By 1930, James had retired, with this census noting that son John L., who was living at home with his sister Caroline, was a wholesale grain salesman. The 1940 census shows James retired, with James and Fannie living at the same address in Pine Bluff, with Second Avenue now named Barraque. This census also indicates that Fannie had done four years of college work (and was presumably a college graduate), and James had gone to college for two years.
The children of James Monroe Hightower and Frances Lindsey Williams were as follows:
1. Lorine Hightower was born 14 August 1880 at Okolona, Chickasaw County, Mississippi, died 9 September 1976 at Pine Bluff. On 23 June 1909 at Pine Bluff, she married William Lunsford Toney, son of William Lunsford Toney and Martha Clarinda Kimbrough. Lorine and her husband are buried at Bellwood cemetery in Pine Bluff.
2. James Monroe Hightower was born 29 January 1882 at Okolona, Chickasaw County, Mississippi, and died 1 March 1891 in Little Rock, Arkansas. He is buried at Mount Holly cemetery in Little Rock.
3. Erskine Williams Hightower was born 6 October 1885 at Little Rock, and died 18 February 1984 at Kerrville, Kerr County, Texas. He married 1) Josephine Sample, daughter of Claiborne Sample and Josephine Hawley, at Pine Bluff on 29 December 1917; 2) Emma Buss on 30 October 1938. He is buried at Hondo cemetery, Hondo, Medina County, Texas.
4. Armistead Lindsey Hightower was born 10 September 1888 at Little Rock, died 31 March 1988, Pinellas County, Florida. He married May A. Bannock.
5. Caroline Hightower was born 20 August 1890 at Little Rock, and died 15 May 1974 at Pine Bluff. On 16 June 1915 in Pine Bluff, she married Horace Epaminondas Johnson, son of James Willis Johnson and Lucinda L. Whaley, at Pine Bluff.
6. John Loys Hightower was born 3 November 1896 at Pine Bluff, and died in November 1978. He married 1) Katherine E. Terry on 14 April 1920 in Phillips County, Arkansas, 2) Pansy Thompson, and 3) Hazel Nancy Jane Fagg on 22 April 1938 in Lincoln County, Arkansas.
 See “A Village Profile…Fulton: 1850,” in Itawamba Settlers 4,1 (March 1984), p. 46.
 W.L. Clayton, “Pen Pictures of the Olden Times,” Tupelo Journal (14 July 1905), p. 3, col. 3-4. Clayton’s article is reproduced by Martha Bone, “Remembering the Old Itawamba County,” in Itawamba Settlers 13,1 (spring 1993). See also David A. Webb’s transcription of this article at his website for Richmond, Mississippi. See also Zereda Greene, “These Things I Remember,” Itawamba County Times, 27 January 1966.
 Itawamba County, Mississippi, Marriage Bk. 4, pp. 185-6. Henry C. Lindsey, The Mark Lindsey Heritage (Brownwood, Texas, 1982), p. 10, erroneously states that Martha married a Kitchens.
 Zereda Greene, “These Things I Remember,” Itawamba County Times, 27 January 1966.
 1860 federal census, Itawamba County, Mississippi, Fulton post office, p. 345 (dwelling 2330, family 2328; 11 September).
 NARA, Compiled Service Records of Confederate Soldiers Who Served in Organizations from the State of Mississippi, M269 RG 109.
 This is stated in an obituary of James M. Williams published in the Tupelo Journal (22 November 1907), p. 8, col. 2. Find a Grave user Paul Armstrong has uploaded it to James M. Williams’s Find a Grave memorial page, Glenwood cemetery, Tupelo.
 1870 federal census, Lee County, Mississippi, Tupelo post office, p. 475B (dwelling and family 18; August [no day given]).
 Dunbar Rowland, Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Comprising Sketches of Counties, Towns, Events, Institutions and Persons, vol. 2 (Madison, Wisconsin: Brant, 1907), p. 68.
 1880 federal census, Lee County, Mississippi, Tupelo p. 118 (ED 90; dwelling 25, family 31; 1 June).
 Lee County, Mississippi, Marriage Bk. 4, p. 134.
 See supra, n. 10.
 See the announcement of the couple’s 60th wedding anniversary in the Arkansas Democrat (28 March 1939), p. 13, col. 7, which states that James and Frances had lived in Pine Bluff 47 years by that date; and see Frances’s obituary in the Arkansas Gazette (19 June 1958), p. 13A, col. 2, which indicates that the couple moved to Pine Bluff in 1892. James Monroe Hightower’s obituary in the Arkansas Gazette says that he and his family had moved to Little Rock 58 years prior to his death: “James M. Hightower, Retired Pine Bluff Merchant,” Arkansas Gazette (22 August 1940), p. 10, col. 5. A brief biography of James was published in the Pine Bluff paper The Semi-Weekly Graphic on 8 August 1896. This states that the family arrived in Little Rock in 1883 and then moved to Pine Bluff in 1892.
 Arkansas Gazette (7 October 1884), p. 8, col. 6-7.
 See e.g. Arkansas Democrat (3 June 1889), p. 6, col. 5; and Arkansas Democrat (1 October 1889), p. 5, col. 3.
 See “Manufactures,” Railway Review 30,28 (12 June 1890), p. 414.
 Pine Bluff Daily Graphic (27 July 1894), p. 4, col. 2.
 1900 federal census, Walker County, Alabama, Jasper, p. 26A (ED 135; dwelling 205, family 217; 16 June).
 James M. Williams’s obituary in the Tupelo Journal on 22 November 1907 mentions the move back to Tupelo in 1904 and then to Shannon in 1906: supra, n. 10.
 Louise J. Williams’s two marriages are mentioned in W.L. Clayton’s July 1905 Tupelo Journal reminiscence cited above, which also notes that Henry Martin died during the Civil War: see supra, n. 3.
 See supra, n. 10.
 1910 federal census, Jefferson County, Arkansas, Pine Bluff, ward 4, p. 10 B (ED 120; dwelling 203, family 210; 22 April).
 Pine Bluff Daily Graphic (10 March 1895), p. 1, col. 2.
 “Mrs. Williams Gravely Ill,” Daily Graphic (Pine Bluff, Arkansas) (20 November 1914), p. 3, col. 4.
 “Deaths at Tupelo,” Jackson Daily News (25 November 1914), p. 5, col. 6.
 See supra, n. 1.
 Arkansas Democrat (28 March 1939), p. 13, col. 7.
 See supra, n. 17.
 See ibid.
 “Mrs. Frances Hightower: Pine Bluff Matron Dies at 100,” Arkansas Gazette (19 June 1958), p. 13 A, col. 2.
 1900 federal census, Jefferson County, Arkansas, Pine Bluff, p. 11A (ED 100).
 1910 federal census, Jefferson County, Arkansas, Pine Bluff, p. 10B (ED 120).
 1920 federal census, Jefferson County, Arkansas, Pine Bluff, p. 6B (ED 141).
 1930 federal census, Jefferson County, Arkansas, Pine Bluff, p. 2B (ED 45).
 1940 federal census, Jefferson County, Arkansas, Pine Bluff, p. 15A (ED 35-51).