James Whitlock in Estate Records of Thomas Whitlock (1615-1659), (Old) Rappahannhock County, Virginia
Anthony Whitlock’s power of attorney and the supporting affidavits of John Whitlock and Johanna Harris were recorded in (Old) Rappahannock County on 27 March 1681, and James Whitlock acted on his commission from his cousin Anthony in England on 11 March 1682, when he sold Thomas Swinburne (Swinbourne in the original) of (Old) Rappahannock County land that had been owned by Thomas Whitlock in that county. The deed recording this land sale provides a number of important pieces of information. First, it identifies James Whitlock as a planter of Gloucester County, Virginia. The deed tells us that in 1682, James was living in Gloucester County, and we can infer from it, I think, that James had been living there for some time, perhaps from his arrival in England.
The deed also states that, in selling Thomas Whitlock’s land, James Whitlock was acting with power of attorney on behalf of Anthony Whitlock of Lambeth in County Surrey, England, nephew of Thomas Whitlock — so the deed tells us that James Whitlock of Gloucester County is the James Whitlock named as a kinsman of Thomas, Anthony, John, and Johanna Whitlock in the 1680 power of attorney documents recorded in (Old) Rappahannock County. The deed states that Anthony had given power of attorney to James Whitlock on 12 July 1680. James sold Thomas Whitlock’s (Old) Rappahannock County land to Thomas Swinburne for 20,000 pounds of sweet-scented tobacco, signing the deed with witnesses Joseph O’Kean, Francis Sterne (his mark), Thomas Hutton, and Robert Play. The deed was recorded 5 April 1682 in (Old) Rappahannock County.
On the day of the sale, James Whitlock of Ware Parish in Gloucester County appointed Francis Sterne of Sittingburne Parish in Rappahannock County his attorney for this sale. That is, because James was living in Gloucester County and the transaction occurred in (Old) Rappahannock County, James had Francis Sterne act on his behalf in (Old) Rappahannock County as the land sale was effected.
(Old) Rappahannock and Gloucester were tidewater Virginia counties. Gloucester still exists. (Old) Rappahannock no longer does so. It is not to be confused with present-day Rappahannock County. (Old) Rappahannock became extinct in 1692, when it was divided into Essex and Richmond Counties. It lay on the Rappahannock River on the Middle Peninsula of Virginia on the western shore of Chesapeake Bay. Gloucester, which is south of (Old) Rappahannock, is on the eastern end of the lower part of the Middle Peninsula, with the York River bordering it on the south and Chesapeake Bay on the east.
Information about Thomas Whitlock (1615-1659) in Virginia Records
As the previous posting notes, Thomas Whitlock had died testate in (Old) Rappahannock County with a will dated 9 October 1659. The will names wife Mary (née Gullock) and son Thomas, specifying that the 600 acres on which Thomas Whitlock Sr. lived were to go to his minor son Thomas, and that Thomas Jr. was to be educated by Mary Whitlock. The will also notes that Thatcher (Sylvester) was the godfather of Thomas Jr. and that Thomas Sr. had a business partner, Samuel Nicholls. The will was proven on 20 November 1659. Thomas Jr. was of age in 1661 and died without issue with a will probated 5 June 1678 in (Old) Rappahannock County, leaving to his heirs lands on both side of the Rappahannock that he inherited from his father Thomas Whitlock. It was the death of the younger Thomas in 1678 that had resulted in the power of attorney given by Anthony Whitlock as the sole living heir of Thomas’s father Thomas Sr. to James Whitlock in 1680 to sell the land of the older Thomas in (Old) Rappahannock County.
Thomas Whitlock Sr. had died seized of considerable landholdings in Virginia. His will notes that he lived in (Old) Rappahannock County on a tract of 600 acres that he was bequeathing to his son Thomas younger. It was evidently that piece of land that James Whitlock sold in March 1682 to Thomas Swinburne. The deed for the sale appears to state that Thomas Whitlock had patented the land James Whitlock was selling to Swinburne on 20 February 1662 — after Thomas Whitlock had died — but a 15 June 1722 deed of John Plaile of Sittenburne Parish in King George County and wife Catherine to Joseph Minton says that Swinburne had patented the land on that date. I take this statement and the statement that the land had been patented to Thomas Whitlock on the same date in the James Whitlock-Thomas Swinburne deed to mean that Swinburne acquired Thomas Whitlock’s land after Thomas died, and the sale in 1682 was to formalize that arrangement.
The 15 June 1722 deed of John and Catherine Plaile to Joseph Minton says that the land the Plailes were selling Minton lay between Minton’s own land and a swamp that divided Minton’s land from the land of William Monroe. A 30 January 1722 deed of the Plailes to Meriday Price, selling another portion of what had been Thomas Whitlock’s land, stated that this piece was bounded on the easternmost side of a small bank on Thatcher’s line, on a corner tree of Monroe’s, and on Samuel Nicholls’s line. Thatcher was Sylvester Thatcher, godfather of Thomas Whitlock’s son Thomas Whitlock younger mentioned previously, and Samuel Nicholls was the business partner of Thomas Whitlock Sr. mentioned in Thomas’s will.
Thomas Whitlock arrived in Virginia at some point before 2 March 1638 when Richard Bennett claimed 300 acres in Isle of Wight County for transporting a number of people to the colony including Thomas Whitlock and Sylvester Thatcher. Richard Bennett’s headright claim may indicate that he himself brought Whitlock and Thatcher to Virginia, or he had acquired a headright claim originally belonging to the person who brought these men to Virginia. If Richard Bennett is the person who himself brought Thomas Whitlock and Sylvester Thatcher to Virginia, then this is a point of special significance: Richard Bennett was a leader among the Puritans who settled in southeastern Virginia in Isle of Wight, Nansemond, and Lower Norfolk Counties. Bennett also had mercantile ties to London as did Richard Whitlock (abt. 1583 – 1642), grandfather of James Whitlock of Virginia and uncle of Thomas Whitlock (1615-1659) of (Old) Rappahannock County. After representing Isle of Wight (Warrosquyoake) in the Virginia House of Burgesses, Bennett served as governor of Virginia 1652-5 during the Commonwealth period and was closely connected to Oliver Cromwell.
As the previous posting notes, James Whitlock’s uncle John Whitlock (1625-1708) was an Anglican clergyman in Nottinghamshire whose Puritan leanings eventually caused him to be ejected from his ministerial position in Nottingham, and James’s father Richard Whitlock (1616-1666) also was ordained in the latter period of his life, and according to Anthony à Wood, after he “had run with the times of usurpation” (i.e., had taken the Puritan side during the Civil War and Commonwealth period), he “wheel’d about at the restoration of king Charles II” and took holy orders, spending the final years of his life as an Anglican parson.
I’m pointing to this biographical information about James Whitlock’s father Richard and uncle John, both ordained men with strong Puritan leanings (in Richard’s case, perhaps prior to his ordination and not afterwards) to note that if Richard Bennett did, in fact, transport Thomas Whitlock to Virginia, then the Whitlocks may have had close ties to the Puritan “establishment” in England and Virginia, ties that would have been all the stronger because, like Richard Bennett, Richard and John Whitlock were sons of a successful London merchant.
There was also a noteworthy marital tie connecting the Bennett family of London and the Whitlock family in the first part of the 1600s: Sir Bulstrode Whitlock (1605-1675), a cousin of the Virginia Whitlocks I’m discussing, married as his first wife Rebecca, daughter of Sir Thomas Bennett, Lord Mayor of London in 1613-4. This marriage took place 22 June 1620 at Morden in Surrey. As with James Whitlock’s father Richard and uncle John, Bulstrode Whitlock took the Parliamentarian side during the Civil War. It’s not clear to me that Sir Thomas Bennett was the Thomas Bennett who was father of Richard Bennett of Isle of Wight County, Virginia — the names Thomas and Richard recur in this family in English and Virginia records and I have difficulty sorting them out — but it’s clear to me that Thomas and Richard were members of the same prominent London mercantile Bennett family whose roots lay in Somerset.
On 29 October 1650, Thomas Whitlock and Sylvester Thatcher patented 1,000 acres lying on the north side of Rappahannock River. Their joint patent was a headright claim based on transporting twenty persons to Virginia, one of whom was Samuel Nicholls, Thomas Whitlock’s business partner. A map in David Wolfe Easton’s Historical Atlas of Westmoreland County, Virginia shows the location of the 1,000 acres on the Rappahannock River between land patented by William Underwood in 1658 (to the north) and to Alexander Fleming in 1662 (to the south). This land is in present-day Westmoreland County, though records for it are filed in (Old) Rappahannock County. On 6 October 1656, Thomas Whitlock and wife Mary signed over 500 acres of this tract to Samuel Nicholls with William Underwood and Alexander Fleming witnessing the deed.
The names Francis Sterne, to whom James Whitlock gave power of attorney as he sold land of Thomas Whitlock in (Old) Rappahannock County in 1682, and Sylvester Thatcher deserve attention. Richard Bennett’s March 1638 headright claim for importing Thomas Whitlock and Sylvester Thatcher among others to Virginia suggests that Thomas Whitlock and Sylvester Thatcher arrived in Virginia together. The families of Francis Sterne and Sylvester Thatcher were interconnected: when Sylvester Thatcher died about 1667, his widow Margaret remarried to Warwick Cammack or Cammock. Warwick Cammack and wife Margaret had a daughter Mary who married Francis Sterne. In choosing Francis Sterne as his power of attorney in 1682 to handle his sale of Thomas Whitlock’s land in (Old) Rappahannock County, James Whitlock was choosing someone with a direct tie to the family of Sylvester Thatcher, with whom Thomas Whitlock appears to have arrived in Virginia, with whom he patented land, and whom he made godfather of his son. I am by no means an authority on the Cammack/Cammock, Thatcher, and Sterne families, but I’ll note here that a number of published studies about the Cammack/Cammock and Sterne families indicate that both families may have come to Virginia from County Essex, England.
James Whitlock, Gloucester and Middlesex County, Virginia, Records
In the period in which James Whitlock was appearing in estate documents of his cousin Thomas Whitlock in 1680-2, he also showed up in the records of (Old) Rappahannock County on 5 May 1681 when he witnessed a deed of 100 acres of land in that county by Thomas Garner of the same county to Robert and William Halsey of Gloucester County. James signed as witness with the other witness, Thomison Barham, making his mark.
On 14 November 1684, Matthew Hudson of Petsworth parish in Gloucester County acknowledged a bill of sale to John Haley and James Whitlock for 100 acres of land in Middlesex County. John Harper and Robert Maybancke witnessed, both signing by mark. The deed spells Petsworth as it was pronounced in colonial Virginia: Petsoe.
On 10 January 1684/5, with the deed stating that he was a planter of Ware Parish in Gloucester County, James Whitlock and his wife Dorothy assigned their interest in this land to Thomas Stacy of Christ Church Parish in Middlesex County. The deed is signed by both James and Dorothy, indicating that both were literate. It was witnessed by Edmond More, Thomas Weste, and Simon Stubblefield Jr. James then signed an acknowledgment of a bond to Thomas Stacy for 1,000 pounds of tobacco. This document is important since it tells us that by January 1685, James had a wife Dorothy who would, it appears, be the mother of his son James Whitlock (before 1690 – 1736).
This document also shows us that from the time he sold his cousin Thomas Whitlock’s land in (Old) Rappahannock County in March 1682 up to January 1685, James had continued living in Ware parish in Gloucester County. The records of Ware Parish have unfortunately not survived, though a church that appears to date from the second quarter of the 18th century continues to stand near the old church site in Ware Neck several miles northwest of the inlet formed by Ware River in Gloucester County. Loth Calder’s Virginia Landmarks Register has a picture of this church and a description of it. Calder notes that the church is unusually large and beautifully crafted, indicating the importance of this church that served Gloucester County’s leading planters. Calder thinks the present building dates from the second quarter of the 18th century. He says that the church is one of the finest examples of colonial brickwork in Virginia.
A map published as a frontispiece in C.G. Chamberlayne’s The Vestry Book of Petsworth Parish, Gloucester County, Virginia, 1677-1793 provides a helpful snapshot of the boundaries of Ware parish and its location in connection to Petsworth parish. Established between 1652-4, Ware parish is situated in the southeastern part of Gloucester County and is bounded on the east and north by Mobjack Bay, on the west by North River and Mathews County, and on the south by Petsworth and Abingdon parishes.
A 16 June 1714 Commonwealth patent to Thomas Reade of Gloucester County provides good clues about where James Whitlock and wife Dorothy lived in Gloucester County. The patent notes that the 47 acres of escheat land Reade was patenting had formerly belonged to Edward Maise, and that James Whitlock and wife Dorothy had deeded the land to Maise on 5 June 1691. Maise then granted the land to Thomas Russell, who willed it to Thomas Reade. The patent states that the 47 acres began near Edward Stubblefield’s tobacco ground, from where his house’s chimney funnel bore northeast 26 poles to Whitlock’s (now Stubblefield’s) spring and adjoined William Debnam along Chisman’s line.
James Whitlock Leaves Gloucester County by April 1688 to Move to New Kent County?
James Whitlock may have left Gloucester County by 23 April 1688 when a headright grant to Simon Stubblefield Jr. (Symon Stubblefeeld in the original) in Ware parish on that date states that the 188 acres Stubblefield was granted in Ware parish began by the road to the courthouse at the head of William Roe’s land, ran northwest along the glebe land to adjoin Richard Whitehead, then joined Thomas Cheesman on the east, and then ran along land formerly belonging to James Whitlock on the east and southeast.
Note that Thomas Cheesman in this 1688 record is the Chisman who was a neighbor of James Whitlock per the June 1714 patent to Thomas Reade discussed above. Minutes of the Council and General Court of Virginia on 27 March 1672 note a dispute that had occurred between Simon Stubblefield and Edmund and Thomas Cheesman, which had been referred to England for judgment. Simon Stubblefield was baptized 25 April 1629 at Castle Camps, Cambridgeshire, England, son of Jeffrey and Marye Stubblefield. Both Edmund and Thomas Cheesman took part in Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 and were sentenced to death for their role in that event, with Edmund dying in prison and Thomas apparently being spared execution. In his history of Ware parish, Spotswood Hunnicutt Jones notes that the Chisman family was an early landowning family in the parish.
I stated previously that James Whitlock “may” have left Gloucester County by April 1688, as I cited the April 1688 headright grant in Ware parish to Simon Stubblefield. However, vestry minutes for Petsworth parish on 29 October 1693 state that Mr. James Whitlock had paid the parish a fine of 500 pounds of tobacco on behalf of Elizabeth Walker, and this possibly indicates that James was still in Gloucester County at that point — but since the record does not state his residence, I’m inclined on the basis of the information in the 1688 grant to Simon Stubblefield to conclude that he had left Gloucester County before April 1688.
Since James Whitlock James appears in a 2 September 1689 court record in Middlesex County, some Whitlock researchers have concluded that when he left Gloucester County — apparently prior to April 1688 — he moved to Middlesex. Middlesex court minutes for 2 September 1689 show James called by the county court, along with Cuthbert Potter and John Parson, to verify the will of George Reeves after his Virginia overseers (i.e., executors) Captain Oswald Carey, Christopher Robinson, and Henry Waring had refused their charge as overseeers. Reeves had made his will in England on 1 November 1675, stating that he was a merchant of “the island of Virginia” now residing in England. The will was probated 26 April 1689 in the prerogative court of Canterbury. When the will was probated in Virginia and the executors there refused their charge, the court called James Whitlock, Potter, and Parson to verify the will.
James Whitlock in Records of St. Peter’s Parish, New Kent County
I’m inclined to think that James Whitlock did not move to Middlesex County from Gloucester County, but that he moved to New Kent County, where we know from the parish register of St. Peter’s Parish that he died on 29 March 1716 (see the digital image at the head of the posting). The James Whitlock dying in New Kent County in 1716 is clearly the man previously in Gloucester County, whose son James Whitlock (before 1690 – 1736) shows up by 1708 in vestry minutes of St. Paul’s parish in what was later Hanover County, with St. Paul’s having been formed from St. Peter’s in New Kent in 1704. Hanover was formed from New Kent in 1720.
New Kent was formed from York County in 1654. At its formation, it included not only the present New Kent County, but also King William, King and Queen, Hanover Counties, and all land upwards to the heads of the Pamunkey and Mattaponi Rivers. The territory south of the York and Pamunkey Rivers comprised St. Peter’s parish, of whose formation we have no precise record, though its vestry book begins in 1682. As the introduction to the National Society of Colonial Dames of America’s transcription of the parish register of St. Peter’s states, since St. Paul’s parish in Hanover County, in which James Whitlock’s descendants appear, was formed from St. Peter’s, persons who trace their ancestry to Hanover will wish to consult the register of St. Peter’s. For a visual snapshot of St. Peter’s and St. Paul’s parishes, see the map of these parishes published by George Carrington Mason in his “The Colonial Churches of New Kent and Hanover Counties, Virginia,” of which a digital copy is found at this previous posting. In the same linked posting, see also the U.S. Census Bureau map of Virginia as of the 2000 census, which shows the locations of Gloucester, New Kent, and Hanover Counties.
According to G.C. Chamberlayne in his introduction to his transcription of the vestry book of St. Peter’s parish, some time after 1678 the vestry of Blisland parish divided that parish, with the upper part of the old parish becoming St. Peter’s. On 29 April 1679, the Virginia Council and General Court confirmed the division. At this time, St. Peter’s was bounded on the northeast by the ridge between the Pamunkey and Mattaponi, on the southeast by John’s/Jack’s Creek and a line beginning at Captain Bassett’s Landing Creek south of the Pamunkey, and on the southeast by the ridge between the Pamunkey and Chickahominy rivers. Since there was no northwest boundary, the parish theoretically extended indefinitely in this direction.
Chamberlayne notes that there were two churches in St. Peter’s parish in 1685 when the earliest minutes were entered into the vestry book. The Upper Church, which is likely the one attended by James Whitlock and his family, was (according to tradition) completed in 1690 and was about three miles east of the village of Old Church on the Pamunkey River in present-day Hanover County.
Tracking James Whitlock in New Kent records is virtually impossible, since the bulk of the county’s records were lost in fires during the American Revolution and Civil War. The loss of virtually all of the county’s early records creates a particular difficulty in the case of James Whitlock, since we have no will or estate records to allow us easily to identify his children. Whitlocks who might be his and wife Dorothy’s children appear in the St. Peter’s parish register — e.g., John, Richard, and Dorothy, the latter marrying William Turner on 15 April 1726 — but without clear indication that they are children of James and Dorothy.
The surname of James Whitlock’s wife Dorothy has not been definitively proven, but as Peter Whitlock, who heads the Whitlock Family One-Name Study, explains, it seems “fairly certain” that Dorothy is the daughter of John Herne named as a niece in the 12 April 1677 will of Sir Nathaniel Herne of London, which leaves a bequest to “— Whitlock wife of — Whitlock of Virginia, daughter of my Brother John Herne deceased.” The probability that the niece of Nathaniel Herne named in this will as the wife of Whitlock of Virginia is James Whitlock’s wife is increased by the fact that, as we’ve already seen, James’s grandfather Richard Whitlock (abt. 1583 – 1642) was a London merchant of some prominence. I’ll discuss Richard further in a later posting.
 (Old) Rappahannock County, Virginia, Will Bk. 2 1677-1682, pp. 157-165. A transcript of the power of attorney and affidavits of John Whitlock and Johanna Harris is in Ruth and Sam Sparacio, Deed & Will Abstracts of (Old) Rappahannock County, Virginia, vol. 2: Deeds & Wills No.  (1677-1682, pt. 1) (McLean, Virginia: Antient Press, 1989), pp. 47-9. This transcript is also found online at pages for Thomas Whitlock of Essex County, Virginia (died bef. 13 June 1678) and John Whitlock of King William parish, Virginia (died 10 June 1746), at the WeRelate site. An abstract of these documents is also in Polly Cary Mason, Records of Colonial Gloucester County, Virginia, vol. 2 (Newport News, Virginia: George Carrington and Polly Cary Mason, 1948), p. 95.
 (Old) Rappahannock County, Virginia, Deed Bk. 6,1, pp. 160-1. A transcript of this deed is found online at “Thomas Whitlock Bef. 1629 – 1659” at Mike Marshall’s Early Colonial Settlers of Southern Maryland and Virginia’s Northern Neck Counties website.
 For the current location of Essex, Richmond, Gloucester Counties, see “Map of Virginia Counties and Independent Cities,” uploaded by David Benbennick to Wikimedia. For interactive maps showing the formation and boundary changes of Virginia counties, see “History of County Formations in Virginia 1617-1995,” at the State of Virginia section of the Germanna Colonies website. If you select the interactive maps for 1691 and 1692 on this page and click on each, you’ll see the location of (Old) Rappahannock and Gloucester in 1691 — the location of these counties in 1682 when James Whitlock was living in Gloucester and selling Thomas Whitlock’s land in (Old) Rappahannock — and in 1692, when (Old) Rappahannock ceased to exist and became Essex and Richmond.
 (Old) Rappahannock County, Virginia, Will and Deed Bk. 2, pp. 90-1. An abstract of the will is in “Abstracts of Rappahannock County Wills,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 5,3 (January 1898), p. 285; and a transcript is found online at “Thomas Whitlock Bef. 1629 – 1659” at Mike Marshall’s Early Colonial Settlers of Southern Maryland and Virginia’s Northern Neck Counties website.
 (Old) Rappahannock County, Virginia, Will and Deed Bk. 2, pp. 91-3. The will is transcribed at “Thomas Whitlock Abt. 1649-1678,” at Mike Marshall’s Early Colonial Settlers of Southern Maryland and Virginia’s Northern Neck Counties website.
 King George County, Virginia, Deed Bk. 1, pp. 73-6.
 ibid., pp. 124-7.
 Virginia Patent Bk. 1, part 2, p. 626, abstracted in Nell Marion Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1666, vol. 1 (Richmond, 1934; repr. Baltimore: Genealogical Publ. Co., 1979), p. 104.
 See “Richard Bennett,” in Martha W. McCartney, Virginia Immigrants and Adventurers: A Biographical Dictionary (Baltimore: Genealogical Publ. Co., 2007), pp. 126-7; John Bennett Boddie, Seventeenth-Century Isle of Wight County, Virginia (Chicago, 1938; repr. Baltimore: Genealogical Publ. Co., 1980), pp. 54-76; and J. Frederick Fausz, “Richard Bennett (bap. 1609–ca. 1675),” in Dictionary of Virginia Biography, online at the Encyclopedia of Virginia website.
 Anthony à Wood, Athenæ Oxonienses, An Exact History of All the Writers and Bishops who Have Their Education in the University of Oxford, vol. 3 (London: Rivingon, 1813-1820), pp. 984-5.
 R.H. Whitelocke, Memoirs, Biographical and Historical, of Bulstrode Whitelocke: Lord Commissioner of the Great Seal, and Ambassador at the Court of Sweden, at the Period of the Commonwealth (London: Routledge, 1860), p. 106; and George E. Cockayne, Complete Baronetage (Exeter: W. Pollard, 1900), p. 9.
 Virginia Patent Bk. 2, p. 263, in Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers: vol. 1, p. 202.
 David Wolfe Easton, Historical Atlas of Westmoreland County, Virginia: Patents, Showing how Lands Were Patented from the Crown & Proprietors of the Northern Neck of Virginia, etc. (Richmond: Dietz, 1942), p. 61.
 (Old) Rappahannock County, Virginia, Deed Bk. 2, pp. 40-1.
 See Elizabeth Hawes Ryland, “Paul Micou, Chyrurgeon,” William and Mary Quarterly 16,2 (April 1936), pp. 241-246.
 (Old) Rappahannock County, Virginia, Deed Bk. 6, pt. 1, p. 142.
 Middlesex Co., Virginia, Deed Bk. 2, p. 174.
 Ibid., p. 175.
 See Emily J. Salmon, A Hornbook of Virginia History (Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1983], pp. 175-6.
 Loth Calder, The Virginia Landmarks Register (Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1986), p. 172. See also “Ware Parish Church” in the listing of Virginia sites on the National Historic Register at the website of Virginia Department of Historic Resources, with a photo by Elizabeth Lipford for DHR.
 C.G. Chamberlayne, The Vestry Book of Petsworth Parish, Gloucester County, Virginia, 1677-1793 (Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1933), frontispiece. The map was drawn by Reverend A. LeB. Ribble.
 See William Byrd Lee, “Ware Church, Gloucester County, Virginia,” in Colonial Churches in the Original Colony of Virginia: A Series of Sketches, ed. W.M. Clark (Richmond: Southern Churchman, 1908), p. 193.
 Virginia Patent Bk. 10, pp. 173-4.
 Ibid., Bk. 7, p. 637.
 Minutes of the Council and General Court of Colonial Virginia, 1622-1632, 1670-1676, with Notes and Excerpts from Original Council and General Court Records, into 1683, Now Lost (Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1924), p. 546; and Robert Armistead Stewart, “Stubblefield Data,” The Researcher 1,1 (October 1926), p. 53.
 See T.P.R. Layng, “Castle Camps, Cambridgeshire,” p. 25, transcribing and indexing records of baptisms, marriages, and deaths in the Castle Camps parish, at the FamilySearch database England Births and Christenings, 1538-1975.
 John Fiske, Old Virginia and Her Neighbours, vol. 2 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Riverside, 1897), pp. 92-3.
 Spotswood Hunnicutt Jones, The World of Ware Parish: A Chronicle of an Episcopal Community in Tidewater Virginia from the Mid-Seventeenth Century to the Present (Richmond: Dietz, 1991, pp. 21-2, n. 13; Virginia Bernhard, “Edmund Cheesman (d. 1677),” Encyclopedia of Virginia; and John Berry and Francis Moryson, “Narrative of Bacon’s Rebellion,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 4,2 (October 1886), pp. 117-154. The narrative is in the Winder Papers at Library of Virginia.
 Petsworth Parish, Gloucester County, Virginia, Vestry Minutes 1677-1793, p. 35; as transcribed by Chamberlayne, Vestry Book of Petsworth Parish, p. 36.
 Middlesex County, Virginia, Court Order Bk. 2, p. 415.
 See the transcript of the will at The Reeves Project website, and “Reeves, George” at the same site.
 National Society of Colonial Dames of America, ed., The Parish Register of Saint Peter’s, New Kent County, Virginia from 1680 to 1787 (Richmond: Jones, 1904), p. 72; and G.C. Chamberlayne, The Vestry Book and Register of St. Peter’s Parish, New Kent and James City Counties, Virginia, 1684-1786 (Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1937),p. 447. The record is found in the original parish register in volume 1, p. 101.
 See the introduction to ibid., p. i.
 George Carrington Mason, “The Colonial Churches of New Kent and Hanover Counties, Virginia,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 53,4 (October 1945), between pp. 246-7.
 U.S. Census Bureau, Map of Virginia counties and independent cities as of the 2000 Census, from Wikimedia Commons
 Chamberlayne, Vestry Book and Register of St. Peter’s Parish, pp. xv-xvi.
 Ibid., p. xvi.
 Ibid., p. xix. Calder’s Virginia Landmarks Register has a picture and description of what appears to be the “Old” St. Peter’s church, which is now near Talleysville, Virginia. Calder notes that the church was built in 1701-3, and is the closest building in colonial Virginia to Baroque architecture. The church was Martha Dandridge Custis Washington’s parish church.
 Peter Whitlock, “Will of Alice (Paske) Herne, 1628,” Whitlock Family Newsletter 33,3 (September 2014), p. 10. The will of Sir Nathaniel Herne, who was a knight and alderman of London, was proved 28 August 1679: see Prerogative Court of Canterbury PROB 11/360/513. A digital image of the will is in the References section of the website of Whitlock Family One-Name Study, file R3546. An abstract of the will is in Lothrop Withington, Virginia Gleanings in England (Baltimore: Genealogical Publ. Co., 1980), pp. 202-3.
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