John Ashdale, Son of ? Ashdale and Sarah Brooks
2. John Ashdale: If the August 1824 will of John’s uncle James Brooks lists the sons of his sister Sarah Brooks Ashdale in order of birth, then John was born after his brother James Ashdale. As my previous posting, which I’ve just linked, indicates, James was born, it appears, in the period 1770-1775; and if his first appearance on the Frederick County, Virginia, tax list in 1793 indicates that he had recently come of age, he was likely born around 1773 or a year or so later.
John Ashdale appears on the 1810, 1820, and 1830 federal censuses in Frederick County, Virginia. By combining the data that these three censuses provide about John’s age, we can determine that he was born between 1771 and 1775. If his brother James was older, as I think is likely true, and if James was born about 1773, then it seems likely that John Ashdale was born around 1774-5.
John Asdill is found on the 1810 census in Frederick County, Virginia, with a household comprised of a male aged under 10, two males 26-44, two females under ten, and one female 16-25. John is evidently one of the two older males. This census places his birth, then, between 1766 and 1784. As my last posting indicates, it’s possible the other male in the household in the same age range as John is his brother James, but I think it’s more likely that James Ashdale is a male of the same age range found in the household of his mother Sarah Asdill in Frederick County in 1810.
The 1810 census indicates that John’s wife — probably the Hannah Ashdale named as his wife in the will of his uncle James Brooks — was born between 1785 and 1794. I have not found Hannah’s surname or a record of John Ashdale’s marriage to her. We know the names of two of John and Hannah’s children from James Brooks’s will: James and John. It’s possible that the male born 1800-1810 in John’s household in 1810 is one of these sons. I have no information about any daughters John and Hannah may have had and cannot make a conjecture about the identity of the two girls also born between 1800 and 1810. Note that this census entry suggests that John Ashdale married and was having children prior to 1810.
The 1820 federal census gives John’s surname as Ashdale. He’s the only Ashdale enumerated on the 1820 census in Frederick County. As my last posting indicates, I think that John’s mother Sarah Ashdale Brooks died in Frederick County between 1810 and 1820, and that John’s brother James had left the county for Tennessee around 1806. In 1820, John and his family were living at Middletown in Frederick County, and the household had one male under 10, one male 10-15, and one male aged over 45, with two females 10-16 and one female 26-45. Note that this census indicates that John was born prior to 1775 and that his wife was born 1775-1794. As we’ll see in a moment, John and Hannah’s son John was born in 1814, according to a number of documents, so John the younger is evidently the male under 10 on this census. The male aged 10-15 might well be John and Hannah Ashdale’s son James, who is named in James Brooks’s will and would have been the male aged under 10 in this household in 1810.
In 1830, John Asdell is enumerated in the western district of Frederick County, with a household containing a male 15-20, a male 20-30, a male 30-40, and a male 50-60, as well as a female 5-10, a female 10-15, a female 15-20, and a female 20-30. Once again, John is the only Asdell (or Ashdell, Ashdale, Asdill) found on the census in Frederick County in this year. His brother James, who had, I think, returned to the county in 1827-8, died either late in 1829 or early in 1830 and would not have been listed on this census for that reason. Note that the 1830 census indicates that John Ashdale was born between 1770 and 1780. Combine that piece of information with the 1820 census’s indication that he was born prior to 1775, and we have a birth range of 1770-1775 for him.
Note, too, that the 1830 census indicates that John’s wife Hannah had died between 1820 and 1830. Hannah was living when James Brooks made his will on 16 August 1824, stating that she was the wife of John Ashdale and making her a legatee. In the 4 February 1828 account of payments made from James Brooks’s estate in the chancery court case file for the lawsuit filed by James Brooks’s great-niece Susan Woodward Peters and husband Peter Peters — I discussed this document in the previous posting — I find Hannah Asdell being paid $5.00 on 20 July 1825. Documents in the case file state, as does James Brooks’s will, that Hannah was John Ashdale’s wife. After the July 1825 payment to her, Hannah is no longer mentioned in this estate account. If she died by 1830, her death would seem to have occurred between 20 July 1825 and 1830.
The 1830 federal census for Frederick County is arranged alphabetically, and doesn’t help us determine where someone lived in relation to someone else. Since the 1820 census tells us that John was living in Middletown at that date, and he’s in the western district of Frederick County in 1830, it seems to me likely that he was still in Middletown, which is some 18 miles southwest of Winchester, in 1830.
I don’t find John Ashdale or any other Ashdales (by any variant spelling) on the 1840 federal census in Frederick County. I also find no match for John (under any variant spelling) anywhere outside Frederick County on the 1840 federal census, so I think it’s likely he died in Frederick County between 1830 and 1840. He last appears on the county tax list in 1833, then vanishes from the tax list, so he may well have died in 1833-4.
I first find John Ashdell on the Frederick County tax list in 1804, when he’s taxed for two white males and seven horses. Prior to this, only James Ashdale (with variant spellings) appears on the Frederick County tax list from 1793 up to 1805, when he and John are taxed together for two white males, two enslaved persons over 16, and nine horses. After James drops from the county tax list in 1806, to reappear in 1828, John continues on the Frederick County tax list up to 1833, when he’s taxed for two white males and five horses. From 1830 through 1833, John is taxed for two white males, whereas prior to 1830, he is always taxed for only a single white male. Note that his household on the federal census in 1830 contains, in addition to John, who is 50-60, a male 20-30 and male 30-40.
A deed John Ashdale made to his uncle James Brooks in Frederick County on 29 January 1821 suggests that John may have been indebted to his uncle by that date. The deed shows John Ashdale of Frederick County selling to James Brooks of the same county for $50 household items including three old beds with their bedding and bedsteads, two tables, one cupboard, one desk, nine old chairs, a looking glass, a “variety of kitchen furniture,” and livestock including a cow, a sow, seven pigs, and an old mare.
John signed the deed as John Ashdell; the marginal notation giving the names of each grantor in the deed book calls John by the Ashdale spelling, however. Witnessing the deed were G.W. Kiger and James and Sarah Woodward, Sarah signing by mark. As we’ve seen, George W. Kiger was the husband of Rebecca Rice, a daughter of John’s aunt Elizabeth Brooks Rice. Sarah Woodward was John’s sister, and James Woodward was her husband — both named in the 1824 will of James Brooks. On 29 July 1823, John acknowledged his deed in county court and it was recorded, with the acknowledgement giving his name as John Ashdill: a single deed shows John with his surname spelled Ashdale, Ashdell, and Ashdill.
As we’ve seen, John Ashdale is named in the August 1824 will of his uncle James Brooks, which states that John is his nephew and tells us that John’s wife was Hannah, and that John and Hannah had sons James and John. The previously mentioned account of disbursals from the estate of James Brooks filed in Frederick County on 4 February 1828 shows John paid $1.98 by the estate on 5 February 1825, the same day on which an unnamed person was paid $5.00 for digging James Brooks’s grave. The estate paid John again on 20 July 1826, when John Asdell received $45, and again on 21 September 1826, when a payment of $2.50 was made to John Asdell. John received another $2.00 on 18 December 1826 and $4.25 on 5 March 1827.
This estate account makes no mention of a John Ashdale Jr. (under any spelling of the surname). It does state that on 20 April 1826, the estate paid James Asdell Junr $15.00. This is clearly James, son of John and Hannah Ashdale, given the junior designation to distinguish him from his uncle, John’s brother James Ashdale. This is the only document I’ve found mentioning John and Hannah’s son James other than the will of James Brooks.
As I note above, I have information about only two of the children of John Ashdale and his wife Hannah — the sons James and John Ashdale named by James Brooks in his August 1824 will. I’ve just told you the tiny bit I know about James Ashdale. John and Hannah Ashdale’s son John died at New Vienna in Clinton County, Ohio, on 18 July 1888, with the Clinton County death register stating that he was 74 years old when he died, a widowed merchant born in Virginia. The death record gives John’s name as John Ashdale. This record places John’s birth in 1814, a date confirmed (in general) by the federal census from 1850 to 1880.
John Ashdale, son of John and Hannah Ashdale, was in Ohio by April 1838, when his name appeared on a dead letter list at Wilmington in Clinton County on 1 April 1838. The 1840 federal census lists John Ashdill in Chester, Clinton County, Ohio. In John’s household were two males aged 20-29, one female under 5, three females 20-29, and one female 40-49.
On 28 March 1843 in Clinton County, John married Amanda Maria Christy. The marriage record gives John’s surname as Ashdill, and states that the couple were married by Reverend E.B. Chase. The Find a Grave memorial page for Amanda, who is buried with husband John in the New Vienna IOOF cemetery at New Vienna in Clinton County, Ohio, cites a Clinton County cemetery book to say that Anna died 17 January 1859, aged 40 years, 10 months, and 11 days. This would yield a birthdate of 6 March 1818.
Federal censuses from 1850 to 1880 provide information about John Ashdale’s life following his marriage to Amanda Christy, and about their family. In 1850, John and Amanda were enumerated with children Hannah L. and Thomas J. Ashdill in Washington, Clinton County, Ohio, where John was farming. This census gives John’s age as 35 (born 1815) and his birthplace as Virginia.
In 1860, John (again listed with the surname Ashdill) was in Wayne township, Jay County, Indiana. This census shows John as a widowed merchant with his children Hannah, Thomas, and John W. Ashdill in the household. He is now aged 45 and again listed as Virginia-born.
The 1870 census again shows John in Wayne township in Jay County, Indiana, at Portland post office, and states that he was a dry goods merchant with $11,000 real worth and $4,000 personal worth. The same three children are in the household; the census tells us that Hannah’s middle name was Louisa and John Jr.’s was William. This census shows John Ashdill Sr. born in Virginia in 1817.
On 5 May 1875 in Washington County, Indiana, John Ashdill married Anna L. Grantham. The marriage record states that John lived in New Castle, Indiana, and Anna in Marietta. The 1880 census suggests that Anna was a widow Grantham at the time of the marriage. In 1880, John Ashdell was living in Wabash in Adams County, Indiana, now remarried to Anna L., aged 45, whose daughter Mamie Grantham is living in the household along with John’s daughter Hannah Louise. John is again listed as a dry goods merchant, aged 66 and born in Virginia.
As noted above, John Ashdale’s death record in Clinton County, Ohio, states that he died in that county at New Vienna on 18 July 1888, aged 74 years. A Find a Grave memorial page for John Ashdill in the IOOF cemetery of New Vienna states that a cemetery book for this cemetery shows him aged 74 years and 12 days when he died on 18 July 1888. This would yield a birthdate of 6 July 1814 for John.
The children of John Ashdale and first wife Anna Maria Christy were as follows
a. Hannah Louise Ashdill (10 March 1844 — 26 February 1891)
b. Thomas J. Ashdill (3 July 1846 — 20 June 1883), married Rachel Emily Arthur, 9 September 1883, New Vienna, Clinton County, Ohio
c. John William Ashdill (10 August 1856 — 29 March 1877), married Anna R. Shirk, 8 June 1876, Henry County, Indiana
All three children are buried with their parents in IOOF cemetery, New Vienna, Ohio.
Sarah Ashdale, Daughter of ? Ashdale and Sarah Brooks, and Husband James Woodward
3. Sarah Ashdale (Woodward) appears to have been born between 1781 and 1784, if the 1810, 1820, and 1830 federal censuses provide accurate information about her age. In 1810, the census has her born between 1766-1784; the 1830 census shows her born 1775-1794; and the 1830 census gives her birth range as 1781-1790. When one combines the three sets of dates, her birth year appears to fall between 1781 and 1784.
Sarah Ashdale Woodward appears to be a female aged 26-44 in the household of James Woodward in Frederick County, Virginia, on the 1810 federal census. The census shows James’s household with one male -10, one male 26-44, two females -10, and a female 26-44. As we’ll see in a moment, James and Sarah Ashdale Woodward’s daughter Susan (who married Peter Peters), was born in 1800, and would therefore be one of the two females aged under 10 years. Note that Susan’s birthdate also suggests that James and Sarah married prior to 1800, and it fits well with a birth range for Sarah between 1781-1784.
On the same census page on which James Woodward is listed, there are also men named Joseph and John Haines and Samuel Brooks. James Woodward is enumerated on page 352 of this census, while Sarah Ashdale’s brother John Ashdill is, as we saw above, on page 353. We know from the 1786 will of Sarah and John’s mother Mary Brooks that Mary had a daughter Susanna who married a Haynes: is one of these two Haines men on the 1810 census near James Woodward Susanna’s husband? And who is the Samuel Brooks listed here, whose household has three members, none of whose age ranges are given?
The 1820 federal census lists Sarah and her husband James Woodward in separate households. Sarah is enumerated at Middletown in Frederick County four households following her brother John Ashdale, with one male -10, one male 10-16, one female 16-26, and one female 26-45. We know from the will of Sarah’s uncle James Brooks that James and Sarah Woodward Ashdale had, in addition to their daughter Susan, who married Peter Peters in 1824, children named Elizabeth, Luke, and William. We’ll see in a moment that Luke’s birthdate is known — 27 July 1809 — and he is apparently the male 10-16 in this household in 1820. The male under 10 is likely William, and the female 16-26 is Elizabeth.
James Woodward is enumerated separately on the 1820 federal census in Stephensburg (the page following Sarah’s entry) with a household of only 1 white male 45+ and 1 male enslaved person 14-25. Stephensburg (or Stephens City, as it’s now called) and Middletown are very close to each other: Stephens City is about five miles northeast of Middletown.
It’s not clear to me why James Woodward and wife Sarah Ashdale Woodward were enumerated separately on the 1820 census, but it’s evident that James had not died by 1820 and that the James Woodward found on the 1820 census is Sarah’s husband. As we’ve seen, James Brooks’s August 1824 will names James Woodward as a legatee. As also noted above, when Sarah’s brother John Ashdale made a deed to his uncle James Brooks on 29 January 1821, James and Sarah Woodward were witnesses to the deed, another indication that the couple were surely not separated by 1820.
The previously mentioned 8 February 1828 account of payments from the estate of James Brooks found in the case file of the 1829 chancery court suit filed by Peter and Susan Woodward Peters against James’s administrators shows James Woodward being paid $6.41 on 21 February 1825 and $5.85 on 20 July 1826. Sarah was issued several payments by the estate: $10.00 on 20 July 1825, $90.00 on 19 May 1826, and $5.87 (and a fraction that appears to be 1/3) on 15 July 1826. The estate also made payments to James and Sarah’s children William and Elizabeth that I’ll discuss in a moment.
The 1830 federal census shows James Woodward living in the western district of Frederick County; this census has no Sarah Woodward listed as head of a household, in contrast to the 1820 federal census.The household in 1830 has one male 5-9, one male 15-19, one male 20-29, one male 60-69, one male 70-79, and two females 40-49. The male aged 60-69 is evidently James and one of the two females aged 40-49 is Sarah, I conclude. I cannot account for the older male or the second female in the 40-49 age category. I think the male aged 15-19 is William, and the male 20-29 is Luke.
I do not find James Woodward on the 1840 census in Frederick County. Did he and wife Sarah die between 1830 and 1840? If so, I have not found a probate record for James.
The children of James Woodward and Sarah Ashdale were, as far as I have discovered, the following:
a. Susan Woodward was born 29 August 1800 in Frederick County, and died 4 May 1862 at Romney in Hampshire County, Virginia (now West Virginia). Susan’s tombstone in the historic Indian Mound cemetery at Romney states that she was 61 years, 8 months, 5 days old when she died on 4 May 1862.
Peter Peters gave bond with James Woodward to marry Susan Woodward on 12 April 1824 in Frederick County. The marriage bond states that James is Susan’s father. As we’ve seen, Susan is named — as Susan Peters — as a legatee of James Brooks in his August 1824 will, and following James’s death, in 1829, Susan and husband Peter Peters filed suit in Frederick Chancery court against James’s administrators. The complaint in the case file is unfortunately truncated, with only the first page preserved. It ends in medias res, making it clear that other subsequent pages missing. The truncated complaint that remains in the file does not make clear why the Peters filed suit, though from other material in the file, it can be deduced that they they thought that they had not received their fair share of her great-uncle’s estate. The estate filed in February 1828 does not include Peter and Susan Peters in its list of those the estate paid.
The Peters family to which Peter Peters belonged seems to have been in Hampshire County, Virginia (now West Virginia) for some years prior to the marriage of Susan Woodward and Peter Peters. The 17 October 1772 will of Peter Peters in Hampshire County, Virginia, names Peter Peters (who married Susan Woodward) as his grandson. According to the North River Mills Society for Antiquarian Arts and the Diffusion of Knowledge at its Historic Hampshire website, the farm in Hampshire County on which George W. Washington’s Ridgedale house, now on the National Register for Historic Places, sits was first settled in 1725 by Peter Peters. This is the Peter Peters who was grandfather of Peter Peters who married Susan Woodward. George William Washington was a relative of George Washington, both sharing Lawrence Washington (1602-1652) as an ancestor. The farm on which Ridgeway stands is called the Washington Bottoms Farm.
b. Elizabeth Woodward was born between 1800 and 1804. The 1820 census discussed above has her born between 1794 and 1804. She is evidently one of the two females aged under 10 years in her parents’ household in 1810 (see above). The two censuses combined place her birth year, then, between 1800-1804. As also indicated above, it appears that Elizabeth is not in her parents’ household in 1830, which may indicate that she had married in the late 1820s — or had perhaps died. I have not found a marriage record for her.
As has been noted, James Brooks names Elizabeth (Betsey) in his August 1824 will in Frederick County, not specifying her connection to him, though it’s plain that she was the daughter of the Sally Woodward whom James designates as his niece in the will, and of the James Woodward to whom a bequest was also made. The 4 February 1828 account of James’s estate in the case file for Peter Peters and Wife vs. Admrs. of James Brooks shows Eliza Woodward being paid $15.00 by the estate on 23 October 1827. This is the last record I’ve found for Elizabeth. If she had married by 1830, her marriage would have occurred between this October 1827 date and 1830.
c. Luke Woodward was born 27 July 1809 in Frederick County and died 3 May 1885 in Fauquier County, Virginia, according to his tombstone in the Woodward family cemetery at Rectortown in Fauquier County (see the image at the head of the posting). On 8 March 1836 in Fauquier County, Luke married Anna Eliza Jolley, daughter of Jacob Jolley. Anna is buried in the Woodward cemetery at Rectortown, Virginia, in which Luke is buried along with both of his wives. Her tombstone states that she was born 14 December 1799 and died 3 October 1854.
Following Anna Eliza’s death, on 4 November 1856 in Loudoun County, Virginia, Luke married Eliza Ann Fred, daughter of Joshua Fred. The marriage record states that Luke was born in 1810 in Frederick County, son of James and Sarah Woodward, and was widowed. According to Eliza Ann’s tombstone, she died 21 October 1897 aged 88 (so born in 1809).
A file for Luke in the Confederate amnesty files held by NARA provides documentation about his service to the Confederacy during the Civil War. The file contains Luke’s application for a pardon from President Andrew Johnson dated 29 May 1865, filed 26 July 1865. This petition states that Luke was living in Fauquier County, Virginia, and had voted for Virginia’s secession from the Union, considering it his duty to do so. He had also sold goods to the Confederacy. He owned taxable property valued at $20,000 when he filed for amnesty.
Madeleine Forrest discusses Luke’s amnesty application in a 2012 M.A. thesis at Clemson University.She notes that when Luke discussed the value of his property in the application, he stated that he had made this wealth through his own hard work, after starting his life with no money. Forrest characterizes Luke Woodward as a “self-made man.”
The 1860 and 1870 federal censuses confirm that Luke had considerable property during the Civil War period. In 1860, he’s listed as a farmer in Fauquier County’s northeast revenue district, aged 49 and born in Virginia, with $44,240 real worth and $23,534 personal worth. The household contains also Luke’s second wife Eliza and children Sarah, Anna, and Luke Edward, all by first wife Anna Eliza Jolley. Also in the household is a Joseph Fred who is, I think, Eliza’s brother. The 1860 federal slave schedule for Fauquier County indicates that Luke’s personal worth on the 1860 census is based largely on his ownership of 13 enslaved persons.
The 1870 federal census shows Luke again farming in Fauquier County, at Scott, with a real worth of $45,000 and a personal worth of $3,400. His enslaved persons had been freed. Wife Eliza has in her right $35,000 real worth and $8,100 person worth. The only other person in the household in 1870 is an African-American domestic servant, Mariah Carter.
The National Register of Historic Places listing for Woodside, an historic house in the Crooked Run Valley Historic District of northwestern Fauquier County, states that Luke Woodward was a stonemason who did the masonry work when Woodside was built in the 1840s for the Marshall family, with William Sutton collaborating as builder.
Debra A. McClane’s nomination form for Woodside’s listing on the National Register of Historic Places notes that Luke Woodward appears in census records as a prosperous farmer, owning 15 enslaved persons in 1850. This and other sources indicate that Luke’s masonry business involved using the labor of enslaved men to do the actual masonry labor as he supervised and instructed. According to McClane, this Woodward family lived for some at “Paradise,” also known as the “Pierce Farm” north of Woodside. Paradise, built about 1758 in what’s now the Warrenton Historic District, is also on the National Register for Historic Places. It appears that the Woodwards lived in a two-story stone farmhouse on the Paradise farm, which appears to date from about 1850, according to McClane. She notes that Luke and family members are buried in a family cemetery near Kelvedon.
Woodward is often cited as having teamed with Sutton on local buildings and having completed brickwork at various houses. The brickwork at Woodside is of high quality, though it was originally clad with stucco. Removal of the stucco in the 1950s revealed that the exterior walls are laid in a five-course American-bond pattern and the front pilasters are laid in a Flemish-bond pattern. Slightly flared jack arches are present over the first floor window openings, as well.
Biographical material about Luke Woodward is included in biographies of his grandson Lambert E. Woodward and of Stephen Decatur Boyd (1821-1881), whose second wife was Luke’s daughter Annie E. Woodward. These sources state that Luke was a native of Frederick County who moved to Rectortown in Fauquier County about 1830, and was a soldier in the Mexican-American war who worked as a building contractor in Fauquier County, building several brick mansions in his area of the county and owning a number of large farms.
The biography of Stephen Decatur Boyd that I’ve just cited states that Stephen Decatur Boyd’s parents were John Boyd and Frances Woodward (born 1784), Frances being the sister of a Major William Woodward. It’s not clear to me whether this Woodward family is related to the family of Luke Woodward and his father James. According to Lewis Woodward, the Woodwards of Fauquier County, Virginia, came there from New Jersey, and descend from an immigrant from Derbyshire, England, to Long Island, who moved to Crosswicks, New Jersey, prior to 1686. Again, it’s not clear to me if the Woodwards being discussed here are the family to which James Woodward of Frederick County belonged.
d. William Woodward was born between 1811 and 1814, according to the 1820 and 1830 censuses cited above. This is the date range one ends up with when one combines the data provided on both censuses about a male in the household of his parents who appears to be William.
I have very little information about William Woodward. He is named as a legatee in the August 1824 will of his great-uncle James Brooks. The only other piece of information I have about William is that he was paid twice by the estate of James Brooks, according to the 4 February 1828 account of James’s estate filed in the case file of the chancery court lawsuit Susan Woodward Peters and her husband Peter Peters filed against James’s administrators in 1829. The estate paid William Woodard $16.00 on 20 July 1826, the same day it made a payment to his father James, and again on 2 October, when he was paid $15.00.
Susan Ashdale, Daughter of ? Ashdale and Sarah Brooks, and Husband William Vincent
4. Susan Ashdale: If Susan is the female in Sarah Brooks Asdill’s household in 1810 (discussed above), then she was born 1785-1794. The 1830 federal census cited below indicates that Susan was born between 1780 and 1790. Putting the two censuses together, one ends up with a birthdate of 1785-1790 for Susan. Susan Ashdale is named as James Brooks’s niece in his August 1824 will. On 4 April 1826, James’s estate paid Susanna Asdell $50.
On 8 February 1828, Susan Ashdell married William Vincent in Frederick County, Virginia. William gave bond on the 7th with William D. Holliday for this marriage. The Family Search site and Find My Past have erroneously stated that Susan’s spouse was Vincent Ashdell, but the marriage bond makes clear that the name of Susan’s husband was William Vincent. Indexes to Virginia marriages of this period available at the Ancestry site also erroneously transcribe Susan’s surname as Lyndell. The marriage bond clearly states it as Ashdell.
Prior to marrying Susan, William Vincent had married Mary Smith in Frederick County on 6 November 1822. The William D. Holliday who gave bond with him for his marriage to Susan Ashdell was William Duncan Holliday (1796-1873), a Winchester merchant who married Ariana Ambler Smith in Frederick County on 28 August 1822.
William Vincent’s family is on the 1830 federal census in the western district of Frederick County. The household has a male aged 30-39 and a female aged 40-49. This census places Susan’s birth between 1780 and 1790. I don’t find this family on the federal census in Frederick County after 1830.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Will Bk. 12, pp. 120-1.
 1810 federal census, Frederick County, Virginia, p. 353.
 1820 federal census, Frederick County, Virginia, Middletown, p. 11.
 1830 census, Frederick County, Virginia, western dist., p. 99.
 Peter Peters and Wife vs. Admrs. of James Brooks, Frederick County, Virginia, Chancery Court 1831-007.
 I am citing the original personal property tax lists for Frederick County, which are arranged by years and are, in most cases, alphabetically arranged within each year’s taxation list. These tax lists have been digitized and made available at the FamilySearch site.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Deed Bk. 47, p. 266.
 See supra, n. 1.
 See supra, n. 5.
 Clinton County, Ohio, Death Register Bk. 2, p. 2.
 The list was published by the Democrat and Herald of Wilmington, Ohio, on 13 April 1838, p. 3, col. 3.
 1840 federal census, Clinton County, Ohio, Chester township, p. 316.
 Clinton County, Ohio, Marriage Bk. 3, p. 243.
 See Find a Grave memorial page for Anna Maria Christy Ashdill, New Vienna IOOF cemetery, New Vienna, Clinton County, Ohio, maintained by Jay Wright.
 1850 federal census, Clinton County, Ohio, Washington, p. 270A (dwelling/family 1065; 28 September).
 1860 federal census, Jay County, Indiana, Wayne, p. 145 (dwelling/family 39; 4 June).
 According to The History of Clinton County, Ohio: Containing a History of the County; Its Townships, Cities, Towns, Etc. (Chicago: J.H. Beers & Co., 1882), p. 997, John Ashdill had a firm called Ashdill & Co. in New Vienna, Ohio.
 1870 federal census, Jay County, Indiana, Wayne, p. 188B (dwelling 241/family 244; 17 August).
 Washington County, Indiana, Marriage Bk. 6, unpaginated, #4322.
 1880 federal census, Adamas County, Indiana, Wabash, p. 74D (ED 134; dwelling 185/family 188; 9 June). The Indianapolis Journal on 13 August 1893 states that Mrs. John Ashdill and daughter Mamie Grantham of Portland, Indiana, had just left town to visit friends in New Castle (p. 13, col. 3).
 See supra, n. 10.
 1810 federal census, Frederick County, Virginia, p. 352.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Will Bk. 12, pp. 120-1.
 1820 federal census, Frederick County, Virginia, Middletown, p. 11.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Will Bk. 5, p. 158.
 1820 federal census, Frederick County, Virginia, Stephensburg, p. 12.
 See supra, n. 1.
 See supra, n. 7.
 See supra, n. 5.
 1830 federal census, Frederick County, Virginia, p. 154.
 See Find a Grave memorial page for Susan A. Peters, Indian Mound cemetery, Romney, West Virginia, created by Katina Peters, with a tombstone photo by B. Strout. A Find a Grave memorial page for Susan’s husband Peter Peters states that he was apparently buried in the Old Presbyterian cemetery at Romney, but his grave may have been removed to Indian Mound cemetery. This page is managed by Katina Peters; it says that Peter Peters’s dates of birth and death are unknown, and suggests that there is no tombstone for him now.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Marriage Bonds Bk. 14, unpaginated, chronological.
 See supra, n. 1 and n. 5.
 See supra, n. 1.
 Fauquier County, Virginia, Marriage Bond Bk. 5, p. 105. Luke gave bond with A.J. Marshall, and Jacob Jolley gave permission for the marriage, stating that he was Anna Jolley’s father. This record spells the surname as Jolly.
 See Find a Grave memorial page of Ann E. (Jolley) Woodward, Woodward family cemetery, Rectortown, Fauquier County, Virginia, created by Hope, with tombstone photos by Hope and Linda Simpson Davidson.
 Loudoun Marriage Bk. 1, p. 12; and Loudoun County, Virginia, Marriage Records 1850-1866, unpaginated, chronological.
 Madeleine Forrest, “When the Rangers Came Home: Reconstructing Lives in Fauquier County, Virginia, 1865-1866,” unpublished M.A. thesis in history at Clemson University 2012), p. 6.
 Ibid., p. 72.
 1860 federal census, Fauquier County, Virginia, North East Revenue District and District 9, p. 18 (dwelling 143/family 132; 21 June).
 1860 federal slave schedule, Fauquier County, Virginia, North East Revenue District and District 9, unpaginated (20 June).
 1870 federal census, Fauquier County, Virginia, Scott, Upperville post office, p. 636B (dwelling 538/family 535; 17 August).
 Debra A. McClane, nomination form for listing of Woodside, Fauquier County, Virginia, on National Register of Historic Places (2009), online at Virginia Department of Historic Resources.
 History of Virginia, vol. 6 (Chicago: American Historical Society, 1924), pp. 14, 240.
 Lewis Woodward, Genealogy of the Woodward Family of Chester County, Pennsylvania, with an Appendix Giving a Brief account of the Woodwards of Some Other Portions of the United States (Wilmington, Delaware: Ferris Brothers, 1879), p. 6.
 See supra, n. 1.
 See supra, n. 5.
 See supra, n. 1.
 See supra, n. 5.
 Frederick County, Virginia, Marriage Bonds Bk. 5, chronological and unpaginated.
 See Louise Pecquet du Bellet, Some Prominent Virginia Families, vol. 1 (Lynchburg: J.P. Bell, 1907), p. 104.
 1830 federal census, Frederick County, Virginia, western district, p. 190.