Children of Mary Brooks (d. 1787, Frederick County, Virginia) — Sarah Brooks (1750/1755 – 1810/1820) and Husband Ashdale (1)

The Brooks line in question is the family line of Sarah Brooks, daughter of Mary Brooks of Frederick County, Virginia. The problems in researching this line begin with Mary Brooks’s will: when Mary made her will on 9 July 1786, she stated that she was leaving to “Daughter Sarah Asdril the sum of eight pounds.”[1] The will as recorded in Frederick County Will Book 5 clearly gives Sarah Brooks’s married name as Asdril.

Will of James Brooks, August 1824, Frederick County, Virginia

But I find no trace of a family with this surname in Frederick or surrounding counties, or places like Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, from which many early Frederick County settlers came. Fortunately, we get a clearer picture of the surname of the husband of Mary Brooks’s daughter Sarah from the will Sarah’s brother James Brooks made in Frederick County on 16 August 1824.[2] Since that will provides such important information about the family of James’s sister Sarah, and since I will refer to it throughout this posting, it’s worth sharing the will and my transcript of it now (a digital image of the will is at the head of this posting):

In the name of God Amen 

I James Brooks of the County of Frederick and State of Virginia being old and week [sic] in body but of sound and perfect mind and memory and calling to mind the uncertainty of this life do make and ordain this my last Will and Testament in manner & form following That is to say I commend my soul to almighty God who gave it and my body I consign to the earth from whence it came to be buryed [sic] by my Executor herein after mentioned in a decent manner.

I give to my nephew James Ashdale, who is living in Tenneſsee the sum of fifty dollars.

I give to my nephew John Ashdale the sum of fifty dollars. I give to my niece Sally Woodward the sum of one hundred dollars. I give to my niece Susan Ashdale the sum of one hundred dollars. I give to Hannah Ashdale wife of John Ashdale to sum of ten dollars. To James Ashdale, son of John Ashdale I give the sum of one hundred dollars. To John Ashdale Junr I give the sum of twenty dollars. I give to James Woodward the sum of twenty dollars. I give to Susan Peters the sum of twenty dollars. I give to Betsy Woodward the sum of twenty dollars. To Luke Woodward and William Woodward I give the sum of twenty each. After the above money is paid together with my funeral expenses, my Executor herein after mentioned shall divide all that remains of my money if there be any equally among the persons above mentioned. It is my Will and desire that my friend Majr Thomas Cramer be my Executor of this my last will and Testament. In witneſs whereof I hereunto set my hand and seal this 16th day of August anno Domini 1824.

James X Brooks his mark

Witneſses present 

Martin Cartmell 

J.M. Glaſs

Robert Gray

As James Brooks’s will makes clear, his sister Sarah married an Ashdale — a name found in Frederick County records and elsewhere with many variant spellings, including Ashdell, Asdell, Asdill, Astill. James does not mention his sister Sarah Ashdale in his will: it’s likely, in fact, that both Sarah and her husband predeceased James. But he does indicate that Sarah Brooks Ashdale had children, named as his nephews and nieces: James Ashdale, John Ashdale, Sarah Ashdale (Woodward), and Susan Ashdale. And the will provides some more details about the families of some of these nieces and nephews that I’ll discuss below.

My Sparse Information about Sarah Brooks Ashdale

I have not been able to find any record of the given name of the Ashdale man whom Sarah Brooks married, where they married, or even where they lived. Mary Brooks’s 1786 will does not specify that the children she names in that will were living in Frederick County at the time the will was made.

For quite some time, I had assumed that a James Asdell who died before 4 January 1830 in Frederick County, Virginia, was the husband of Sarah Brooks. On that date, Newton Boley and George D. Harrison gave bond for administration of James Asdell’s estate, and an estate sale was held on 23 January 1830 with the appraisal of the estate being recorded on 1 February 1830.[3] None of these documents names any heirs of James Asdell/Ashdale.

I had also assumed that the James Asdill who first appears on Frederick County tax lists in 1793, and who seems to be this same man who died there in 1830, was Sarah Brooks’s husband.[4]

I’ve now become fairly certain, however, that the James Asdell/Asdill/Ashdale of these 1793 and 1830 records is the nephew James Ashdale named by James Brooks in his 1824 will: this is, I think, Sarah Brooks Ashdale’s son and not her husband. Though James Brooks’s will states that his nephew James Ashdale was in Tennessee when the will was made, Frederick County tax lists suggest that he returned to Frederick County in or just before 1828, where he died two years later. 

As I state above, I have not found any clear record of Sarah Brooks’s husband — and the only clear record I can find for Sarah herself other than her mention in her mother’s 1786 will is her listing (as Sarah Asdill) on the 1810 federal census in Frederick County.[5] This document shows Sarah living in Winchester, Frederick County’s seat, and heading her household. This census record suggests that Sarah’s husband had died by 1810.

Sarah Asdill’s household in 1810 consists of a female aged 45+, a male aged 26-44, and a female aged 16-25. Sarah’s son John Asdill also appears on the 1810 federal census in Frederick County,[6] married with children, and with his age in the same age range as that of the male in Sarah Asdill’s household in 1810. It seems to me that the male born 1766-1784 in Sarah’s household in 1810 is likely her son James, and the female born 1785-1794 is Sarah’s daughter Susan. We know from other documents that Sarah Brooks Ashdale’s daughter Sarah had married James Woodward before 1801, and as the will of James Brooks in August 1824 indicates, Sarah Brooks Ashdale’s daughter Susan was still unmarried at that date — and she appears in a list of those paid by the estate two years later still unmarried.

The 1810 census tells us, then, that Sarah Brooks was born prior to 1765. If, as I have noted previously, Mary Brooks named her sons and daughters in her will in order of birth, grouping the sons separately from the daughters, then her will indicates that her daughter Sarah was born after her daughters Mary (Hollingsworth) and Elizabeth (Rice). Various pieces of information suggest to us that Mary Brooks Hollingsworth was born 1745-1750, and that Elizabeth Brooks Rice was born 1747-1750. It also seems clear that Mary and Elizabeth’s brother Thomas Brooks was born around 1747

These birthdates for the three siblings born prior to Sarah Brooks appear to indicate that she was probably born 1750-1755. As we’ll see later, we can establish the birthdate of Sarah’s older son James Ashdale in the 1770-1775 time frame, and that birthdate for her oldest child seems to confirm the deduction that she was likely born around 1750-1755. 

Other than this, I have next to no concrete data for Sarah Brooks Ashdale. I do not find her listed on any federal census after 1810. In 1820, her children John Ashdale and Sarah Woodward both appear on the federal census in Frederick County. I think it’s likely that Sarah Brooks Ashdale died in Frederick County between 1810 and 1820, and, as stated above, that her husband had died prior to 1810.

As stated above, we know from the will of Sarah Brooks Ashdale’s brother James in 1824 that Sarah had children James, John, Sarah, and Susan. The will also tells us that by 1824, John had married a wife Hannah and had sons James and John. Sarah had married a Woodward whose name, we know from other sources, was James, and who is evidently the James Woodward to whom James Brooks’s will makes a bequest. We can infer from the will that James Woodward and Sarah Ashdale had children Elizabeth, Luke, and William, and other sources tell us that the Susan Peters to whom a bequest is made is another child of James Woodward and Sarah Ashdale.

If the will of James Brooks places the children of Sarah Brooks Ashdale in chronological order, then James was eldest, with John, Sarah, and Susan following him in birth order. Here’s what I can tell you about the children of ? Ashdale and Sarah Brooks: 

James Ashdale (abt. 1773-1830), Son of Sarah Brooks and ? Ashdale

1. James Ashdale: as noted above, if James is the unmarried male in Sarah Brooks Asdill’s household in Frederick County in 1810, he was born between 1766 and 1784.[7] The household of James’s brother John Asdill in 1810 also has two males in this same age range, one of them obviously John himself.[8] It’s possible the other male is John’s brother James, but more likely, I think, that James was living unmarried in his mother’s household in 1810. 

As also stated above, James Asdill begins to appear on the tax list in Frederick County in 1793, when he was taxed for one white male in his household. Since this is the first time I find James Ashdale (all spellings) on the county tax list, he may have come of age around this time — and, if so, he was perhaps born around 1773 or a year or two after that.

I find James on the Frederick County tax list again in 1794, 17951800, 1801, 1802, and 1805, and then he disappears from the county tax list until 1828.[9] Up to 1802, James is taxed for 1 white male. In 1802, he begins to be taxed for two white males, and by 1802, he is taxed for an enslaved person aged 16+. In 1805, he and his brother John are taxed together for two white males and two enslaved persons aged 16+. Over the years from 1794-1805, James is also taxed for horses whose numbers range from one to nine depending on the year. 

From 1805, when James Ashdale (the tax lists also use the spellings Asdill, Asdell, and Ashdell) disappears from the Frederick County tax list, to 1828, when he reappears only to disappear altogether from the tax lists in 1830, James’s brother John continues to be listed on Frederick County tax lists. Note that James Brooks’s will states that his nephew James Ashdale was living in Tennessee in 1824. I think it’s very likely that James Ashdale left Frederick County by 1806 and moved to Tennessee. 

I have searched Tennessee tax and land records without finding any trace of James Ashdale (under all spellings of the surname) in the period 1805-1828. On 1 October 1824, the Knoxville [Tennessee] Registerreports that a letter to James Ashdell in Knoxville was on the list of dead letters reported by the city’s post office on that date.[10] This is, I suspect, James Ashdale son of Sarah Brooks Ashdale. I do not find James in Knox County, Tennessee, land records, and the federal censuses for this county are lost for the years 1800, 1810, and 1820.

4 February 1828 account for estate of James Brooks, Frederick County, Virginia, in Peter Peters and Wife vs. Admrs. of James Brooks, Frederick County, Virginia, Chancery Court 1831-007

In 1829, James Brooks’s great-niece Susan, daughter of James Woodward and Sarah Ashdale, filed suit along with her husband Peter Peters in Frederick County chancery court against the administrator of James Brooks’s estate.[11] The case file for this lawsuit contains an account of the disbursal of James Brooks’s estate filed in Frederick County on 4 February 1828. This document shows James Asdell (distinguished in the account from James Asdell Junr, son of John Ashdale), being paid twice by his uncle’s estate: on 26 June 1825, he received $10; and on 21 October 1826, he was paid $25. On 27 December 1827, the estate paid William A. Baker $1.50, with a notation that this payment was for James Asdell. As we’ve seen, James Brooks’s will left his nephew James Ashdale a legacy of $50, noting that James Ashdale lived in Tennessee. The account of payments made from James Brooks’s estate by his administrator George W. Kiger, husband of James Brooks’s niece Rebecca Rice, does not indicate where the legatees were living when payments were made to them.

The William A. Baker to whom James Brooks’s estate made a payment on behalf of James Ashdale was William Alexander Baker ((1788-1847), a member of a family long prominent in Winchester. He is buried in Winchester’s Mount Hebron cemetery.

4 January 1830 bond of Newton Boley and George D. Harrison for administration of estate of James Asdell, Frederick County, Virginia, Administrator Bonds Bk. 7, unpaginated, chronological

As noted previously, in my view, James Ashdale returned to Frederick County, Virginia, from Tennessee by 1828, when the county tax list shows him taxed for one enslaved person aged over 12 and six horses.[12] This is the last record I find for James Ashdale before his estate records were filed in Frederick County in early 1830. As noted previously, on 4 January 1830, Newton Boley and George D. Harrison gave bond for administration of James Asdell’s estate.[13] Their securities were John White, John Heiskell, Daniel Gold, and Nathaniel Burwell.

Estate of James Asdell, Frederick County, Virginia, Will Bk. 15, pp. 486-7
Estate of James Asdell, Frederick County, Virginia, Will Bk. 18, pp. 266-7

On 23 January 1830, James J. Picklen, John Carter, and William H. Harris appraised the estate, and a sale was held on the same day, with buyers including John Carter, George D. Harrison, and John Asdell.[14]  The appraisal was recorded on 1 February 1830, and a final settlement was made on 1 April 1834.[15] There is no indication in any of these records of heirs of James Ashdale.

Newton Boley, Administrator of James Ashdale’s Estate

There’s quite a bit of information to be found about the administrator of James Asdell’s estate, Newton Boley. I’ve read extensively about Boley, searching for clues as to his connection to James Ashdale, without finding any. Boley was a businessman — in fact, a notorious slave trader — who was a generation younger than James Ashdale, so on the face of it, it’s odd that he would have administered James’s estate. In my experience, estate administrations of mature persons were commonly of the same generation as the persons whose estates they were administering, though, admittedly, this was not always the case. In 1830, when Boley administered James Ashdale’s estate, he had not yet launched his career as a slave trader.

Tombstone of Newton Boley, from Find a Grave memorial page for Newton Boley, Zion Episcopal cemetery, Charles Town, Jefferson County, West Virginia, photo by Linda Simpson Davidson

According to Boley’s tombstone in Zion Episcopal cemetery in Charles Town, Jefferson County, West Virginia, he was born 2 November 1805 and died 4 April 1848.[16] A biographical statement at Newton Boley’s Find a Grave memorial page states,

Newton Boley advertised in the Virginia Free Press (Charles Town, WV), October 17, 1839, his farm in Clarke Co., VA. He was living in Charles Town at the time (August 22, 1839). He is buried in the plot of Leonard Sadler.

The 1830 federal census shows Newton Boley enumerated in Berkeley County, Virginia, with a household comprised of a male aged 15-20 and five enslaved people.[17] Berkeley is now a West Virginia county contiguous to Frederick County, Virginia, joining it on the north. The 12 October will of John Bryan in Jefferson County, Virginia (now West Virginia), and the undated will of Elizabeth Boley proven on 27th December 1824, also in Jefferson County, both name Newton Boley as a grandson.[18]

On 20 August 1835, Newton Boley purchased the Christian Allemong house, now on the National Register of Historic Places, at Summit Point in Jefferson County (then Virginia, now West Virginia), along with its 276+-acre estate, a purchase stipulated by Allemong’s 1833 will. Newton Boley then sold the house to Benjamin Boley and apparently never lived in it.[19]

After 1835, Newton Boley began engaging in the slave trade as an agent for Franklin and Armfield, Virginia slave traders headquartered in Alexandria. As John J. Zaborney states,[20]

Additionally, J. M. Saunders and Company in Fauquier County, Thomas Hundley in Amherst County, Newton Boley in Winchester, and others in southwestern Virginia, Richmond, Fredericksburg, and elsewhere purchased and sent slaves to Franklin and Armfield in Alexandria, one of Virginia’s major slave-collection points.

As Ann Denkler indicates, Boley operated his slave-trading business (in connection with Franklin and Armfield) out of Winchester in Frederick County, Virginia, collaborating with William Crow of Charles Town in Jefferson County.[21] According to Denkler, Crow would buy enslaved people from slaveholders in northern Virginia and Maryland for sale “downriver” to Mississippi and Louisiana, and would keep these people enchained in the basement of his house at Charles Town, eventually sending them to Boley, who traveled back and forth from Winchester to Mississippi to engage in the slave-selling business.[22]

In Crow’s old house at Charles Town, a cache of letters from Newton Boley to Crow was discovered some years ago and is now held by the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the University of Virginia.[23] The letters date from the period 1835-1842. 

Among the letters in this collection is one that Boley sent Crow on 22 December 1837 from Vidalia, Louisiana, across the Mississippi River from Natchez, stating that he had been unable to sell any of his enslaved persons except Easter. Boley wrote Crow again on 22 January 1838 saying that he had sold Bill, Walker, and Martha, receiving $900 apiece for the men, but having to pay a two-percent brokerage fee and $774 for Martha. He also noted that most of the New Orleans slave trade was conducted through brokers. 

Manifest of Brig Uneas, 3 November 1838, New York Historical Society, Slavery Collection, 1709-1864: Series VI, Manifests, 1812-1855

In the holdings of New York Historical Society there is a manifest of the brig Uneas, dated 3 November 1838. The Uneas had sailed from Alexandria, Virginia, to New Orleans with eighty-two “negroes, mulattoes, and persons of color” for sale. The ship’s manifest includes the name of Newton Boley of Jefferson County, Virginia, as one of those owning thirty-three of the enslaved persons being shipped from Virginia to New Orleans for sale.[24]

Mississippi Free Trader (8 December 1838), p. 3, col. 1

The Mississippi Free Trader of Natchez shows Newton Boley advertising on 4 December 1838 that he had enslaved persons for sale.[25] In the 8 December issue of this paper, the ad ran again, now specifying that Boley was selling 70-80 Negroes.[26] This ad ran regularly in the Mississippi Free Trader in 1838-9.

Rodney [Mississippi] Telegraph (2 March 1839), p. 4, col. 5

On 2 March 1839, more ads by Boley advertising enslaved people for sale began to appear in the Rodney [Mississippi] Telegraph. The ads Boley ran in that paper in March 1839 state that he had “sixty very Likely Virginia and Maryland NEGROES” for sale at Vidalia, Louisiana.[27]

On 21 February 1841, Boley wrote William Crow to state that he had insured the fifteen enslaved persons on the bill of lading sent to him, that The Orleans had not yet arrived, and that he had sold Patrick and Minor for $1,700, leaving six enslaved people on hand. On 25 February 1841, Boley wrote again to Crowe, indicating that The Orleans had arrived safe yesterday (evidently in New Orleans), and that had been able to sell Priscilla, Moses, and Lewis for [$2225?] leaving only Charles, Sam, and one other enslaved person on hand.[28]

On 24 March 1841, Boley wrote Crow from New Orleans to say that he had sent Crow a draft equal to the total amount of $22,150 for all the enslaved persons he had sold. Two days later, on 21 March, he wrote to urge Crow to buy as many enslaved people as he could to resell during the summer because “I think there is more Capital than negroes and they will trade for a small profit.” The enslaved man Reuben was sold for $700. Boley advised Crow not to offer anything for sale in Maryland.[29]

On 3 December 1841, Boley reported to Crow about the mutiny of enslaved persons on The Creole and the murder of John Hewel who was with McCargo’s enslaved people. The mutineers sailed to Nassau in the Bahamas, where nineteen were imprisoned for the murder of Hewel and the others set at liberty by the British government.[30]

On 7 February 1842, Boley wrote to tell Crow that he was not impressed with the latest group of enslaved people sent to him by Crow but would do what he could with them on the New Orleans market. He also urged Crow that if he had any more enslaved persons for sale, they should be sent to Boley immediately for sale and he should not buy any more without better vetting. Four days later on the 11th, he reported to Crow the sale of Lucy and her children for $1,000, which was, in his opinion, a low sale. On 7 April 1842, Boley told Crow that times were hard on the New Orleans market and he was unable to sell three brothers Crow had sent him even at $650 dollars apiece. Boley warned Crow that he would lose money on any sales in the current market. On 1 May 1842, Boley listed all of the enslaved people he had sold on Crow’s behalf and the prices that they had brought, and urged Crow not to sue Tanner for payment on his note but allow Tanner to wait until his first sugar crop had come in before he would be expected to pay.[31]

In his history of Winchester, Virginia, Frederick Morton transcribes an ad Newton Boley placed in 1842 in an unidentified newspaper stating that he was headquartered at Danner Hotel in Winchester and wanted to buy 40-50 enslaved persons for sale.[32] The context of this passage in Morton’s book suggests that this ad was placed in a Winchester newspaper.

Vicksburg Whig (19 August 1844), p. 4, col. 5

On 19 August 1844, one T.J. Ford of Golden Plains in Yazoo County, Mississippi, placed a notice in the Vicksburg Whig stating that on 10 August, a number of enslaved men whom he had, he thought, been enticed away by a white man were heading to Virginia with passes.[33] The notice states that Ford had bought one of these enslaved men in New Orleans from Newton Boley in 1840, and the others from Boley at Port Gibson, Mississippi, in October 1843.

28 December 1846 slave manifest of brig Kirkwood, New Orleans, NARA, Slave Manifests of Coastwise Vessels Filed at New Orleans, Louisiana, 1807-18601846-7, RG 36 M1895

On 28 December 1846, a slave manifest of the brig Kirkwood shows this vessel arriving in New Orleans with a large number of enslaved persons for sale, including forty-seven who were being sold by Newton Boley of Winchester, Virginia.  Following the list of enslaved persons being sold by Boley who were aboard this brig is a list of more enslaved people being sold by William Crow of Charles Town, Virginia.[34]

Federal land records show Newton Boley acquiring numerous tracts of federal land in Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana, between February and May 1846. Some of these landholdings are noted in a 1935 Louisiana case, Buckley v. Thibodeaux, which was heard in the 1st Louisiana Circuit Court of Appeals in October 1935. The case notes state that in 1846, Newton Boley purchased land in Louisiana from the federal government, which then ended up in his succession (and this indicates that a succession file for Newton Boley may be filed in Terrebonne Parish). The land was in Terrebonne Parish on Bayou DuLarge.[35]

Once again: I don’t have any information to explain why Newton Boley administered the estate of James Ashdale/Asdell in Frederick County, Virginia, in 1830. Boley was a young man of 25 at the time, living in Berkeley County, Virginia, and not yet engaged in the slave-trading business, as far as I can determine. I have found no indications that James Ashdale married and had children. Perhaps he and Boley had some kind of business connection prior to 1830, but if so, I haven’t discovered that connection.

The George D. Harrison who gave bond with Newton Boley for the administration of James Ashdale’s estate was George Dent Harrison (1790-1860), son of Joseph Harrison and Mary Chappelear. In 1839, he was operating Harrison’s Mill just north of Winchester at the site of Valley Mill Farm, now on the National Register of Historic Places. The mill had originally been built by William Helm, who apparently built the historic house now standing at the Valley Mill Farm site.[36] Nathaniel Burwell, one of the securities for Boley and Harrison, was also a miller of Winchester.[37]

In my next posting, I’ll share the information I’ve found about Sarah Brooks Ashdale’s other children John, Sarah (Woodward), and Susan, and about the families of John and Sarah.

[1] Frederick County, Virginia, Will Bk. 5, pp. 158-9.

[2] Ibid., Bk. 12, pp. 120-1.

[3] Frederick County, Virginia, Administrator Bonds Bk. 7, unpaginated, chronological; Frederick County, Virginia, Will Bk. 15, pp. 486-7 and Will Bk. 18, pp. 266-7.

[4] Frederick County, Virginia, Personal Property Tax List, 1793, p. 2.

[5] 1810 federal census, Frederick County, Virginia, p. 329. Transcribers have unhelpfully rendered the name as Ardill, though it’s clearly Asdill in the original.

[6] Ibid., p. 353. Again, transcribers have mistranscribed the surname as Ardill, though it’s clearly Asdill in the original.

[7] See supra, n. 5.

[8] See supra, n. 6.

[9] I am citing the original personal property tax lists for Frederick County, which are arranged by years and are, in most cases, alphabetically arranged within each year’s taxation list. These tax lists have been digitized and made available at the FamilySearch site.

[10] Knoxville Register (1 October 1824), p. 3, col. 5.

[11] Peter Peters and Wife vs. Admrs. of James Brooks, Frederick County, Virginia, Chancery Court 1831-007.

[12] See supra, n. 9.

[13] See supra, n. 3.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ibid.

[16] See Find a Grave memorial page for Newton Boley, Zion Episcopal cemetery, Charles Town, Jefferson County, West Virginia, maintained by Linda Simpson Davidson, with a photo of the tombstone uploaded by her.

[17] 1830 federal census, Berkeley County, Virginia, p. 207.

[18] Jefferson County, West Virginia, Will Bk. 1, pp. 667-8; Will Bk. 4, pp. 237-8.

[19] See Kathleen Thompson,”Christian Allemong House,” Clio: Your Guide to History (September 28, 2020);  and Valarie Owens and Mike Dunkum, nomination form for Christian Allemong house, National Register of Historic Places (2003).

[20] John J. Zaborney, “Slave Sales,” Encyclopedia of Virginia at Virginia Humanities website. 

[21] Ann Denkler, Writing Freedom into Narratives of Racial Injustice in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley (Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020), p. 70.

[22] Ibid. See also Jonathan Levy, Freaks of Fortune: The Emerging World of Capitalism and Risk in America (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard UP, 2012), p. 37.

[23] See “A Guide to the Slave Trade Letters to William Crow, 1835-1842,” Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library at the University of Virginia, at Virginia Heritage website.

[24] New York Historical Society, Slavery Collection, 1709-1864: Series VI, Manifests, 1812-1855with a digital image online at the society’s website.

[25] Mississippi Free Trader (4 December 1838), p. 2, col. 4. Boley’s ads for the sale of 70-80 enslaved persons in the Mississippi Free Trader and the Natchez Gazette are noted in Charles Sackett Sydnor, Slavery in Mississippi (New York: Appleton, 1933), p. 186. 

[26] Mississippi Free Trader (8 December 1838), p. 3, col. 1.

[27] Rodney [Mississippi] Telegraph (2 March 1839), p. 4, col. 5; and (9 March 1839), p. 4, col. 5.

[28] See supra, n. 23.

[29] Ibid.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Frederick Morton, The Story of Winchester in Virginia: The Oldest Town in the Shenandoah Valley (Strasburg, Virginia: Shenandoah, 1925), p. 126.

[33] Vicksburg Whig (19 August 1844), p. 4, col. 5.

[34] NARA, Slave Manifests of Coastwise Vessels Filed at New Orleans, Louisiana, 1807-18601846-7, RG 36 M1895.

[35] See Buckley v. ThibodeauxCourt of Appeal of Louisiana, First Circuit (3 October 1935), online at the Casemine website. 

[36] See James C. Massey and Shirley Maxwell’s nomination form for Valley Mill Farm, National Register of Historic Places (2005).

[37] Morton, The Story of Winchester in Virginia, p. 116.

One thought on “Children of Mary Brooks (d. 1787, Frederick County, Virginia) — Sarah Brooks (1750/1755 – 1810/1820) and Husband Ashdale (1)

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